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What is Personality? 
People differ from each other in meaningful ways  People seem to show some consistency in behavior

Personality is defined as distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting

‡ Personality refers to a person¶s unique and relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings, and actions ‡ Personality is an interaction between biology and environment
± Genetic studies suggest heritability of personality ± Other studies suggest learned components of personality


How Personality Develops ? ‡ Personality develops with advancement in an individual¶s age passing through certain stages in a sequential order. ‡ Different psychologists and behavioural scientists have come out with different stages explaining how an individual¶s personality develops or shapes. .

It refers to the school age and it is the longest period wherein one¶s personality is shaped in a definite pattern.Freud¶s Stages of Personality 1) The Oral Stage ± The oral stage lasts for the first year of one¶s life. 5) The Genital Stage ± It refers to the adulthood. One takes interest in opposite sex. . 3) The Phallic Stage ± It develops at the age of four years. This is called the infancy stage. Parents give training to the child. 2) The anal Stage ± It extends throughout the second and third year of a child. 4) The Latency Stage ± It takes place between the age of six and seven years. One tends to seek Love and attraction in this stage.The infants are totally dependent upon others for survival and growth.

‡ Movement from one stage to next one is developmental .Erikson¶s Eight Life stages ‡ Erikson extended Fraud¶s theory in a more systematic manner and identified eight stages of human life.

Erikson¶s Eight Life stages 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Infancy ± (1 yr) Early Childhood (2-3 yrs) Play Age ( 4-5 yrs ) School Age ( 6-12 Yrs ) Adolescence ( 15.18 Yrs ) Young Adulthood ( 20 ± 23 Yrs ) Adulthood ( 30-40-50 Yrs) Old Age ( Sunset Age ) ± ( 60 ± 75 Yrs ) .

‡ Machiavellanism ± ( named after Niccolo Machiavelle ). ‡ Self Esteem ± Individuals regard themselves as capable to achieve success. ‡ Self-Monitoring ‡ Risk taking . Luck factor matters. Its refers to an individual¶s propensity to manipulate people for solving his interest.Personality influencing OB ‡ Locus of Control ± It refers to one¶s belief that what happens is either within one¶s control or beyond one¶s control. The former is called internals and the latter is called external.

Trait 2. Psychoanalytic 3. Socio-Cognitive .Four Theories of Personality 1. Humanistic 4.

The First Trait Theory Moody Anxious Rigid Sober Pessimistic Reserved Unsociable Quiet UNSTABLE Touchy Restless Aggressive Excitable Changeable Impulsive Optimistic Active melancholic choleric ‡ Two Factor Trait Theory of Personality INTROVERTED EXTRAVERTED Sociable Outgoing Talkative Responsive Easygoing Lively Carefree Leadership phlegmatic sanguine Passive Careful Thoughtful Peaceful Controlled Reliable Even-tempered Calm STABLE .

500 traits ± Cattel used factor analysis to identify 30-35 basic traits ± Eysenck argued there are 3 distinct traits in personality ‡ Extraversion/introversion ‡ Neuroticism ‡ Psychotocism Allport .Personality Traits ‡ Traits are relatively stable and consistent personal characteristics ‡ Trait personality theories suggest that a person can be described on the basis of some number of personality traits ± Allport identified some 4.

Overview of the Big ³5´ .

Assessing Traits: An Example ‡ Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) ± the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests ± developed to identify emotional disorders .

´ ‡ ³I get angry sometimes.MMPI: examples ‡ ³Nothing in the newspaper interests me except the comics.´ .

especially the Big 5 model. neuroticism and agreeableness) have cross-species generality ‡ Problems with trait theory include: ± Lack of explanation as to WHY traits develop ± Issue of explaining transient versus long-lasting traits .Evaluating Trait Theory ‡ Trait theory. is able to describe personality ± Cross-cultural human studies find good agreement for the Big 5 model in many cultures ± Appear to be highly correlated not only in adulthood. but also in childhood and even late preschoolers ± Three dimensions (extraversion.

our personality develops defense mechanisms to protect against anxiety .Psychoanalytic Theory ‡ Psychoanalytic theory. attempts to explain personality on the basis of unconscious mental forces ± Levels of consciousness: We are unaware of some aspects of our mental states ± Freud argued that personality is made up of multiple structures. as devised by Freud. some of which are unconscious ± Freud argued that as we have impulses that cause us anxiety.

Freudian Theory  Levels of consciousness ± Conscious ‡ What we¶re aware of  Structures of Personality ± Id ‡ Operates according to the ³pleasure principle´ ± Preconscious ‡ Memories etc. ‡ Contains values and impulses that lies ideals beyond awareness . that can ± Ego be recalled ‡ Operates according to the ³reality´ principle ± Unconscious ± Superego ‡ Wishes. feelings.

Freudian Theory  Anxiety occurs when: ± Impulses from the id threaten to get out of control ± The ego perceives danger from the environment  The ego deals with the problem through: ± coping strategies ± defense mechanisms .

Defense Mechanisms ‡ Defense mechanisms refer to unconscious mental processes that protect the conscious person from developing anxiety ± Sublimation: person channels energy from unacceptable impulses to create socially acceptable accomplishments ± Denial: person refuses to recognize reality ± Projection: person attributes their own unacceptable impulses to others ± Repression: anxiety-evoking thoughts are pushed into the unconscious .

words.Defense Mechanisms ‡ Rationalization: Substituting socially acceptable reasons ‡ Intellectualization: Ignoring the emotional aspects of a painful experience by focusing on abstract thoughts. thoughts or feelings by exaggerating the opposite state ‡ Regression: Responding to a threatening situation in a way appropriate to an earlier age or level of development ‡ Displacement: Substituting a less threatening object for the original object of impulse . or ideas ‡ Reaction formation: Refusing to acknowledge unacceptable urges.

.Assessing the Unconscious ‡ Projective Tests ± used to assess personality (e.g. Rorschach or TAT tests) ± How? provides ambiguous stimuli and subject projects his or her motives into the ambiguous stimuli .

Assessing the Unconscious² Rorschach ink blot test used to identify people¶s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots .

Assessing the Unconscious--TAT Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) ‡ people express their inner motives through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes .

Psychoanalytic Neo-Freudian  Alfred Adler ± Humans are motivated by social interest ± Takes social context into account ± First Born ‡ Privileged until Dethroned ± Second Born ‡ In shadow of 1st Born inferiority. passive. dependent ± Only Child ‡ Higher intellect. restlessness ± Youngest ‡ Pampered. & withdrawn . timid.

Psychoanalytic Neo-Freudian  Carl Jung ± A collective unconscious is represented by universal archetypes ± Two forms of unconscious mind ‡ Personal unconscious: unique for each person ‡ Collective unconscious: consists of primitive images and ideas that are universal for humans .

Humanistic Theory ‡ Humanistic personality theories reject psychoanalytic notions ± Humanistic theories view each person as basically good and that people are striving for self-fulfillment ± Humanistic theory argues that people carry a perception of themselves and of the world ± The goal for a humanist is to develop/promote a positive self-concept .

.Humanistic Perspectives  Carl Rogers ± We have needs for: ‡ Self-consistency (absence of conflict between selfperceptions ‡ Congruence (consistency between self-perceptions and experience) ± Inconsistency evokes anxiety and threat ± People with low self-esteem generally have poor congruence between their self-concepts and life experiences.

.Humanistic Perspectives Abraham Maslow emphasized the basic goodness of human nature and a natural tendency toward self-actualization.


Social/Cognitive Perspective ‡ Proposed that each person has a unique personality because of our personal histories and interpretations shape our personalities Albert Bandura¶s social-cognitive approach focuses on self-efficacy and reciprocal determinism. Julian Rotter¶s locus of control theory emphasizes a person¶s internal or external focus as a major determinant of personality. .

chance.Locus of Control (Rotter)  Internal locus of control ± Life outcomes are under personal control ± Positively correlated with self-esteem ± Internals use more problem-focused coping  External locus of control ± Luck. and powerful others control behavior .

friends and social groups ‡ Any other external influences ‡ Attitudes and values passed from generations ‡ Our Ideologies and beliefs .Personality Vs Enviornment Factors affecting our personality formation ‡ Culture ‡ Early conditioning ‡ Norms among family.

Thank you .