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Phylum Arthropoda

      

Largest and most successful phylum in the animal kingdom. 75% of all animals! Exoskeleton made of Chitin (light/hard polysaccharide). Must molt or shed exoskeleton to grow Jointed Appendages. CephalizationCephalization-compound eyes, ocelli (eyespots), antennae. Segmented Billateral symmetry

Evolution of Arthropods
Fossilized Trilobites 

Evolution of Arthropods 

Typical primitive arthropod:
many identical segments with a pair of appendages. 

Evolution led to fewer segments and specialized appendages

 Lobsters & crabs are the giants of this group-most groupare a few centimeters long.SUBPHYLUM MANDIBULATES Antennae. Chilopoda & classesInsecta.  . Diplopoda.  Crustaceans-add some limestone to the chitinous Crustaceansexoskeleton. Mandibles & Maxillae  Includes 4 classes-Crustacea.

mate. crawl. lobsters  2 pairs of antennae-sense antennaesurroundings  Dominant arthropods in sea (as insects are on land)  Appendages to swim. attach.Class Crustacea Shrimps. crabs. feed  .

Crustaceans In addition to lobsters & crabs.  Due to the nature of their rigid exoskeleton. crustaceans must molt or shed their shell in order to grow. shrimp.  They use an enzyme to split their shell & then crawl out. copepods and barnacles all belong to this class.  .

filter feed.1) Small Crustaceans CopepodsCopepods. shrimp-like.planktonic. planktonic.extremely abundant. filter feed  Barnacles. have Krillshrimpcarapace to cover anterior. filter feed  . Barnaclesbody enclosed by calcareous plates  Krill.usually sessile.

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lobsters.2) Larger CrustaceansCrustaceansDecapods: Decapods: shrimps. and crabs Five pairs of legs. first pair are claws  Carapace encloses cephalothorax (anterior region)  (posterior region) is abdomen  .

Shrimps and Lobsters Long abdomens (tails we eat)  Scavengers for food  Lobsters prey on mollusks  .

Hermit Crabs Not true crabs  Scavengers  Hide abdomens in empty gastropod shells  .

True Crabs Small abdomen and tucked under cephalothorax  V-shape ab. in males  U-shape ab. in females  Largest and most diverse of decapods  Scavengers and predators  .

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Male Jonah Crab .

Female Jonah Crab .

appendages near mouth (decapods have 3 pairs)  Food passes to stomach w/ teeth for grinding  Digestive glands w/ enzymes  Intestine leads to anus  Nutrients distributed through open circulatory system  .Feeding MaxillipedsMaxillipeds.

.Circulatory System QuickTimeΠand a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

000 sensitive units)  Keen sense of smell  Body postures/movements to communicate w/ each other  Simple brain  .Response (nervous) Well developed sense organs  Compound eyes (opposite of simplesimple14.

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Reproduction Separate sexes sexual reproduction  Males directly transfer sperm to females  Ex. Barnacle stretches out appendage to local females  Mating occurs after female molts  .

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METAMORPHOSIS One last reason for arthropod success is their ability to go through stages that exploit different food at different times in their life.  Incomplete Metamorphosis-Egg-Nymph-Adult.  Complete Metamorphosis-Egg-Larvae-Pupae-Adult. Metamorphosis-Egg-Larvae-Pupae . The Metamorphosis-Egg-Nymphnymph stage is like a miniature form of the adult.

Class Arachnids-8 legs Arachnids2 body parts-spiders. Book lungs/gills . partsticks. mites. scorpions. Class MerostomataMerostomataHorseshoe crabs. 2 Classes.SUBPHYLUM CHELICERATE      FangFang-like mouthparts (Chelicerae)(Chelicerae)-Pedipalps for sense.

Carapace 2. Compound eye 4. Anterior spine Five pair of legs . Telson 3.Horseshoe Crab      1.

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ARACHNIDS  Spiders Scorpions   Ticks .

MILLIPEDES & CENTIPEDES Class Diplopoda-The Diplopodamillipedes only have about 100 legs with 2 pairspairs-legs/segment  Class Chilopoda-The Chilopodacentipedes have fewer legs (1 pair/segment).  While millipedes scavenge on decaying plant material. centipedes are predators w/venom glands.  .

Mandibles  Malpighian tubules (Kidneys) get rid of their wastes. Thorax & Abdomen parts 6 legs. Antennae.CLASS INSECTA Class Insecta-largest group of animals in the world! Insecta 3 Body parts-Head.  .

INSECT ANATOMY .