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Agenda

 

Week 6

Review Homework ‡ Problems Ch 3: 2, 4 Chapter 3: Problem Solving ‡ Desksides: 7 QC Tools ‡ Flow chart ‡ Run Chart ‡ Pareto Diagram ‡ Histogram ‡ Cause and Effect Diagram ‡ Check sheet ‡ Scatter diagram ‡ Control chart 

Week 7 assignment ‡ Read chapter 4 ‡ Homework problems: Ch 3 11, 12, 23, 28(c)
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Case Study: "How We Slashed Response Time"

Quality Improvement: Problem Solving

Seven Quality Tools
Chapter 3: Problem Solving

Quality Improvement: Problem Solving

Seven Quality Control Tools
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Pareto Chart
‡ Histogram

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Process flow diagram Check sheet Scatter diagram Control chart Run Chart Cause and Effect Diagram
Quality Improvement: Problem Solving

Pareto Principle  Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) Italian economist ‡ 20% of the population has 80% of the wealth  Juran used the term ³vital few. trivial many´. 7 Quality Tools Quality Improvement: Problem Solving . He noted that 20% of the quality problems caused 80% of the dollar loss.

Pareto chart 30 % Complaints 28 25 20 15 10 5 0 Loose Threads Stitching flaws Button problems Material flaws 16 12 12 6 4 3 7 Quality Tools Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .

70 (64) Percent from each cause Pareto Chart 60 50 40 30 20 (13) 10 0 (10) (6) (3) (2) (2) Causes of poor quality Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .

9 13 .9 15 . 9 6. 9 3. 9 7.9 11 .9 12 . 9 10 . 9 4.Histogram 25 20 Frequency 15 10 5 0 1. 9 9.9 M or e Category 7 Quality Tools Quality Improvement: Problem Solving . 9 2.9 14 . 9 8. 9 5.

Histogram 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 6 13 10 16 19 17 12 16 20 17 13 5 6 2 1 Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .

7 Quality Tools Quality Improvement: Problem Solving . Used to describe processes that are to be improved.Flowcharts  Flowcharts ‡ ‡ Graphical description of how work is done.

Flow Diagrams " Draw a flowchart for whatever you do. you do not know what you are doing. Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .Dr. you just have a job. W.´ -. Edwards Deming. Until you do.

Flowchart Activity Yes Decision No 7 Quality Tools Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .

Flowchart Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .

Flow Diagrams Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .

Flow Diagrams Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .

Process Chart Symbols Operations Inspection Transportation Delay Storage .

sort Page 1 0f 3 Total 30 480 190 ft 15 20 5 20 ft 360 20 ft 30 50 ft Distance (feet) 100 ft Time (min) 20 Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Quality Improvement: Problem Solving . inspect. sort Move to storage Wait until needed Move to peeler Apples peeled and cored Soak in water until needed Place in conveyor Move to mixing area Weigh. inspect.Process Chart Date: 9-30-00 Analyst: TLR Operation Transport Inspect Delay Storage Location: Graves Mountain Process: Apple Sauce Description of process Unload apples from truck Move to inspection station Weigh.

Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .

Check Sheet Shifts ˜˜˜ Defect Type ˜˜˜˜ ˜˜˜ ˜˜˜˜ ˜˜ ˜ ˜˜˜ ˜˜ ˜˜˜ ˜ 7 Quality Tools Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .

Check Sheet COMPONENTS REPLACED BY LAB TIME PERIOD: 22 Feb to 27 Feb 1998 REPAIR TECHNICIAN: Bob TV SET MODEL 1013 Integrated Circuits Capacitors Resistors Transformers Commands CRT |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| || || |||| | Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .

Developed by Kaoru Ishikawa (1953) Also known as « ‡ ‡ Fishbone diagrams Ishikawa diagrams 7 Quality Tools Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .Cause-andCause-and-Effect Diagrams    Show the relationships between a problem and its possible causes.

Cause and Effect ´Skeletonµ Materials Procedures Quality Problem People Equipment 7 Quality Tools Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .

Fishbone Diagram Measurement Faulty testing equipment Incorrect specifications Improper methods Human Machines Out of adjustment Tooling problems Old / worn Poor supervision Lack of concentration Inadequate training Inaccurate temperature control Dust and Dirt Quality Problem Defective from vendor Not to specifications Materialhandling problems Poor process design Ineffective quality management Deficiencies in product design Environment Materials Process Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .

Cause and effect diagrams  Advantages ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ making the diagram is educational in itself diagram demonstrates knowledge of problem solving team diagram results in active searches for causes diagram is a guide for data collection Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .

the 4 M¶s  man. Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .  method. remember:  For manufacturing . material policies. people For service applications  equipment. machine.Cause and effect diagrams To construct the skeleton. procedures.

Scatter Diagram . Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .

Basis for Control Charts Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .Run Charts  Run Charts (time series plot) ‡ ‡ Examine the behavior of a variable over time.

35 c = 12.99 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Sample number Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .67 Number of defects 18 15 12 9 6 3 2 LCL = 1.Control Chart 27 24 21 UCL = 23.

Control Charts Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .

1 3.4 3.1 4.0 3.7 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.2 4.9 Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .4 5.6 3.1 5.4 4.7 4.6 4.0 3.5 4.4 4.1 3.5 6.8 4.6 4.7 3.4 3.7 4.´Stem and leafµ displays Data Integrated Circuit Response Time (ps) 4.3 4.0 6.3 3.1 4.

´Stem and leafµ displays Integrated Circuit Response Time (ps) 3 4 5 6 7 4 4 7 7 4 3 7 9 6 0 1 5 6 2 6 7 1 1 5 6 4 8 3 4 6 1 0 0 Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .

Dot diagrams Integrated Circuit Response Time (ps) 3 4 5 Plant A Plant B 6 Quality Improvement: Problem Solving .