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Thermal Conductivity

•In physics, thermal conductivity, k, is the property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat.
W/(m·K) [SI unit]

•In other words, it is defined as the quantity of heat, ΔQ, transmitted during time Δt through a thickness x, in a direction normal to a surface of area A, due to a temperature difference ΔT, under steady state conditions and when the heat transfer is dependent only on the temperature gradient.

•Alternately, it can be thought of as a flux of heat (energy per unit area per unit time) divided by a temperature gradient (temperature difference per unit length)

Thermal Conductivity - Examples
• In metals, thermal conductivity approximately tracks electrical conductivity according to the WiedemannFranz law, as freely moving valence electrons transfer not only electric current but also heat energy. • However, the general correlation between electrical and thermal conductance does not hold for other materials, due to the increased importance of phonon carriers for heat in non-metals.

• Highly electrically conductive silver (429) is less thermally conductive than diamond (900~2320), which is an electrical insulator.

Thermal Conductivity - Examples
• Thermal conductivity depends on many properties of a material, notably its structure and temperature. • For instance, pure crystalline substances exhibit very different thermal conductivities along different crystal axes, due to differences in phonon coupling along a given crystal axis. • Sapphire is a notable example of variable thermal conductivity based on orientation and temperature, for which the CRC Handbook reports a thermal conductivity of 2.6 W/(m·K) perpendicular to the c-axis at 373 K, but 6000 W/(m·K) at 36 degrees from the c-axis and 35 K.

in the absence of convection. • Therefore. . • Natural. many insulating materials function simply by having a large number of gas-filled pockets which prevent large-scale convection. • Examples of these include expanded and extruded polystyrene (popularly referred to as "styrofoam") and silica aerogel.Thermal Conductivity . biological insulators such as fur and feathers achieve similar effects by dramatically inhibiting convection of air or water near an animal's skin.Examples • Air and other gases are generally good insulators.

16 0.1 2 2.3 7-Jan 1.19 0.29 1.5 0.7 .Material Thermal conductivity Cement. stone [1] Air 0.4 0.26 0. • However.23 .03 • Thermal conductivity is important in building insulation and related fields.2320 .018 0.1 .21 0.04 .6 0. Portland [1] Concrete.004-0. • In a nutshell.0.7 237 318 401 429 900 . the thermal conductivity of a system is determined by how atoms comprising the system interact.4 12.025 0.0 35.11 ~ 45.3 0. materials used in such trades are rarely subjected to chemical purity standards. Wood Alcohols and oils Silica Aerogel Soil Rubber Epoxy (unfilled) Hydro-NM-Oxide (Nansulate) LPG Epoxy (silica-filled) Water (liquid) Thermal grease Thermal epoxy Glass Ice Sandstone Stainless steel[2] Lead Aluminium Gold Copper Silver Diamond 1.

– For a plate of thermal conductivity k. measured in K·m²·W−1. • There is also a measure known as heat transfer coefficient: the quantity of heat that passes in unit time through unit area of a plate of particular thickness when its opposite faces differ in temperature by one degree. thermal conductance is the quantity of heat that passes in unit time through a plate of particular area and thickness when its opposite faces differ in temperature by one degree. measured in W·K−1 thermal resistance = L/kA. area A and thickness L this is kA/L. – The reciprocal is thermal insulance. – Thermal conductivity and conductance are analogous to electrical conductivity (A·m−1·V−1) and electrical conductance (A·V−1).Thermal Conductance / Resistance / Insulance / Admittance • For general scientific use. measured in W·K−1 (equivalent to: W/°C). measured in K·W−1 (equivalent to: °C/W) heat transfer coefficient = k/L. measured in W·K−1·m−2 thermal insulance = L/k. • The heat transfer coefficient is also known as thermal admittance . • In summary: – – – – thermal conductance = kA/L.

the atomic mass increases much faster than the atomic volume. • Materials built from light elements such as carbon C. [Check this for yourself]. • For a series of materials with the same crystal structure. it is controlled to a large extent simply by the mass of the constituent atoms. (low atomic number. oxygen O.Material Density • The density is an important and surprisingly interesting engineering property. • In solid materials. • As the atomic number increases. . the solid density and the atomic number or atomic mass track each otherquite closely. . found at the top of the Periodic Table) have low densities. so that the effective atomic density rises rapidly. .and hydrogen H . such as the FCCmetals.

platinum and uranium. • The materials with these high densities are tungsten. • The highest density in a solid engineering material is around 20000 kg/m.What is the highest density we can attain? • The upper limit is set by the available heavy elements.(find yourself these densities) . gold.

2 .Some benchmark values • It is useful to know a few values for backof-the-envelope engineering calculations: for example (in kg/m3) • Steels 7800 • Concrete 2600 • Polyethylene 10001 • water 1000 • air 1.

as in some hydrocarbon polymers which contain only C and H.What is the lowest solid density we can achieve? • In practice in solid materials we cannot go much below about 700–800 kg/m3. . O and Cl have significantly higher densities. • Polymers which contain other elements such as F.

3 . equal to the volume average of the density of the solid component and the air-filled voids. • • • • The bulk density is a composite property.89 and a bulk density of about 250 kg/m. The manufactured3materials with the lowest bulk density are silica aerogels.very low bulk densities can be achieved in porous or cellular materials.Low density Materials • The only general route to low density materials is by incorporating porosity. • • A number of processes area available to do this: for example forming of metals and polymers. The highly porous cement-based material shown in the lecture slides has a volume fraction porosity of about 0. Since the density of air is so low. Materials may also be formed from fibres or particles by compaction or partial sintering. These have bulk densities in the range 10–100 kg/m.

by heating the material (below its melting point . – In these cases very low porosity is desirable and can often be achieved. since its porosity allows lubricants to flow through it or remain captured within it. Sintering is traditionally used for manufacturing ceramic objects. – In the case of materials with high melting points such as Teflon and tungsten.Sintering? • Sintering is a method for making objects from powder. Sintered bronze in particular is frequently used as a material for bearings. sintered stainless steel elements are used for filtering steam in food and pharmaceutical applications. sintering is used when there is no alternative manufacturing technique. . and has also found uses in such fields as powder metallurgy. • • • Sintered bronze and stainless steel are used as filter materials in applications requiring high temperature resistance while retaining the ability to regenerate the filter element.solid state sintering) until its particles adhere to each other. – For example.

eight times the heat energy is required to increase the temperature of an ingot of magnesium as is required for a lead ingot of the same mass. For example. For instance. is the measure of the heat energy required to increase the temperature of a unit quantity of a substance by a certain temperature interval. compounds. Scientifically. . the heat energy required to raise water’s temperature one kelvin (equal to one Celsius degree) is 4. – – – • • • • In the measurement of physical properties. including chemical elements. The specific heat of virtually any substance can be measured. also known simply as specific heat. this measure would be expressed as c = 4.184 joules per gram—the gram being the specified quantity. and composites.184 J g–1 K–1. solutions. the term ―specific‖ means the measure is a bulk property (an intensive property). wherein the quantity of substance must be specified.Specific heat capacity • Specific heat capacity. The symbols for specific heat capacity are either C or c depending on how the quantity of a substance is measured. alloys. More heat energy is required to increase the temperature of a substance with high specific heat capacity than one with low specific heat capacity.

• Heat capacity is usually expressed in units of J K–1 (or J/K). . • Heat capacity is an extensive property because its value is proportional to the amount of material in the object.Heat Capacity? • Heat capacity (symbol: Cp) — as distinct from specific heat capacity — is the measure of the heat energy required to increase the temperature of an object by a certain temperature interval. a bathtub of water has a greater heat capacity than a cup of water. for example.

Melting Point .

. and latent heat of vaporization (boiling). latent heat is the amount of energy in the form of heat released or absorbed by a substance during a change of phase state(i. • The specific latent heat of fusion of a substance is the amount of heat required to convert unit mass of the solid into the liquid without a change in temperature. liquid. • The term is now replaced by "enthalpy of transformation― • Two latent heats (or enthalpies) are typically described: latent heat of fusion (melting).e. – also called a phase transition. or gas). – The names describe the direction of heat flow from one phase to the next: solid → liquid → gas.Latent Heat • In thermochemistry. solid.

• The large value of the enthalpy of condensation of water vapor is the reason that steam is a far more effective heating medium than boiling water. energy is transported by the water molecule into a lower temperature air parcel that contains more water vapor than its surroundings. and is more hazardous. the latent energy absorbed during evaporation is released as sensible heat onto the surface. • For example. the process of transition from a parcel of water to a parcel of vapor requires the input of energy causing a drop in temperature in its surroundings. i. when the change is from solid to liquid to gas. • Because energy is needed to overcome the molecular forces of attraction between water particles. in the atmosphere. . • If the water vapor condenses back to a liquid or solid phase onto a surface.• The change is endothermic. the system absorbs energy. • It is exothermic (the process releases energy) when it is in the opposite direction. when a molecule of water evaporates from the surface of any body of water.e.

its constituent particles move around more vigorously and by doing so generally maintain a greater average separation. • The degree of expansion divided by the change in temperature is called the material's coefficient of thermal expansion and generally varies with temperature. .Thermal Expansion • Thermal Expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature. • When a substance is heated. and only occurs within limited temperature ranges. • Materials that contract with an increase in temperature are very uncommon. this effect is limited in size.

will generally have different expansion coefficients in different orientations.Thermal Expansion • Common engineering solids usually have thermal expansion coefficients that do not vary significantly over the range of temperatures where they are designed to be used. value of the coefficient of expansion. calculations can be based on a constant. so where extremely high accuracy is not required. • Materials with anisotropic structures. . such as crystals and composites. average.

rather than thermal contraction. in such cases. we usually speak of negative thermal expansion. • For example.Thermal Expansion .Examples • A number of materials contract on heating within certain temperature ranges. the coefficient of thermal expansion of water drops to zero as it is cooled to roughly 4 °C and then becomes negative below this temperature. . and this leads to bodies of water maintaining this temperature at their lower depths during extended periods of sub-zero weather. this means that water has a maximum density at this temperature.

which also has an effect on the hardness of solids. liquids expand slightly more than solids. • Thermal expansion generally decreases with increasing bond energy. which expand more than ceramics.Examples • Common polymers expand roughly 4 times more than metals. . harder materials are more likely to have lower thermal expansion.Thermal Expansion . • In general. so.

• Thermometers are another example of an application of thermal expansion — most contain a liquid which is constrained to flow in only one direction (along the tube) due to changes in volume brought about by changes in temperature.Thermal Expansion . .Examples • Heat-induced expansion has to be taken into account in most areas of engineering. A few examples are: – Metal framed windows need rubber spacers – Metal hot water heating pipes should not be used in long straight lengths – Large structures such as railways and bridges need expansion joints in the structures to avoid sun kink – One of the reasons for the poor performance of cold car engines is that parts have inefficiently large spacings until the normal operating temperature is achieved.

solids typically expand in response to heating and contract on cooling. • When the stored energy increases. • As a result.Coefficient of Thermal Expansion • When the temperature of a substance changes. . this dimensional response to temperature change is expressed by its coefficient of thermal expansion. so does the length of the molecular bonds. the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes.

and is common in engineering applications.Coefficient of Thermal Expansion • Different coefficients of thermal expansion can be defined for a substance depending on whether the expansion is measured by: – linear thermal expansion – area thermal expansion – volumetric thermal expansion • These characteristics are closely related. . so they have negative thermal expansion coefficients. – The volumetric thermal expansion coefficient can be defined for both liquids and solids. – The linear thermal expansion can only be defined for solids. such as freezing water. • Some substances expand when cooled.

.Anisotropy? • In anisotropic materials the total volumetric expansion is distributed unequally among the three axes and if the symmetry is monoclinic or triclinic even the angles between these axes are subject to thermal changes.

and in other engineering applications when large changes in dimension due to temperature are expected. when using tape or chain to measure distances for land surveys. when designing molds for casting hot material. .Thermal Expansion in Materials • The expansion and contraction of material must be considered when designing large structures.

. like alloys.Applications • Bi-Metal – Bi-metal refers to an object that is composed of two separate metals joined together. • Trimetal and tetrametal refer to objects composed of three and four separate metals respectively. bimetallic objects consist of layers of different metals.Thermal Expansion . Instead of being a mixture of two or more metals.

• Making the lid out of aluminum allowed it to be pulled off by hand instead of using a can opener. – The tin prevents the can from rusting. . which convert a temperature change into mechanical displacement. coins are often composed of a cheap metal covered with a more expensive metal. but these cans proved difficult to recycle owing to their mix of metals.Applications • Bi-metallic strips and disks. tin cans consist of steel covered with tin. are the most recognized bimetallic objects due to their name. there are other common bimetallic objects. – To cut costs and prevent people from melting them down for their metal.Thermal Expansion . • However. – For example. – A common type of trimetallic object (before the allaluminium can) was a tin-plated steel can with an aluminum lid with a pull tab.

is a thermometer consisting of mercury in a glass tube.Thermal Expansion . . invented by German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit.Applications • A mercury-in-glass thermometer.

Thermal Expansion . and allowing it to cool after it has been pushed over the shaft.Applications • Thermal expansion is also used in mechanical applications to fit parts over one another. e. thus achieving a 'shrink fit' .g. then heating it until it fits over the shaft. a bushing can be fitted over a shaft by making its inner diameter slightly smaller than the diameter of the shaft.