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WHAT IS A VIRUS?

Viruses may be defined as acellular organisms whose genomes consist of nucleic acid, and which obligately replicate inside host cells using host metabolic machinery to different extents, to form a pool of components which assemble into particles called virions. F Viruses cannot be grown on sterile media, but require the presence of specific host cells.

F A virus differs from a cell in three fundamental ways: i A virus usually has only a single type of nucleic acid serving as its genetic material. This can be single or double stranded DNA or RNA; ii Viruses contain no enzymes of energy metabolism, thus cannot make ATP; iii Viruses do not encode sufficient enzymatic machinery to synthesize their component macromolecules, specifically, no protein synthesis machinery.

Fundamentally then, a virus is:
A package of genetic information protected by a protein shell for delivery into a host cell to be expressed and replicated

PROTOZOA: Obligate intracellular parasite that replicate within eucaryotic cells. CHLAMYDIA: Obligate intracellular bacterial parasite which depends on eucaryotic cell for energy. VIROID: Infectious agents of plants that exist as naked nucleic acid (circular single stranded (ss) ssRNA). HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS (HDV): Viroid-like agent whose replication is dependent upon HBV.Viruses are distinguished from other obligate parasites. some of which are even simpler than viruses: MYCOPLASMA: Small bacterium that grows only in complex medium or attached to eucaryotic cells. .

. They are thought by many to consist solely of protein and perhaps lipids. No nucleic acid is known to be required for prion function.PRION (proteinacious infectious agent): Hypothesized identity of the unconventional slow viruses (such as the Kuru. Scrapie and “Mad cow” disease agents). Study of these agents has resulted in 2 nobel prize awards.

Kuru Scrapie BSE vCJD .

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BSE in Britian 80 70 CJD. nvCJD in Britian 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 .

all infectious agents were considered to be viruses until Koch developed pure culture techniques which allowed the separation and growth of bacteria. those able to pass through special filters designed to prevent the passage of bacteria. pock marks indicative of smallpox and. 1900. Yellow fever (a flavivirus). In the late 1800's: Bacteria were purified and established as disease causing agents. It then became possible to distinguish them from the "filterable agents".Recognition of viruses F How long viruses have been within our midst? 1500 BC: Leg deformities indicative of poliomyelitis. . During the 1800's. Rous sarcoma virus (an oncogenic retrovirus). 1898. The first viruses described were foot and mouth disease (a picornavirus). "Virus" is from the Greek meaning for "poison" and was initially described by Edward Jenner in 1798. 1906.

and were a major factor in the decimation of these societies. Roosevelt. These diseases. HIV.S.Viral diseases have played a major role in human history over whatever time scale we choose to explore: Over the past 1000 years: Smallpox and measles were brought to North and South America by early European explorers/conquerers. As the century entered its final 20 years. the U. killed large fractions of the populations. Over the past 100 years: A newly emerged strain of influenza killed 20 million people in 1918-1919 in the immediate aftermath of World War I. for which the native American populations had no acquired partial immunity. polio became one of the most feared infections of children and young adults (including Franklin D. A decade later. spread rapidly around the world via body fluid transmission. . President throughout the Depression and World War II). a new ~100% lethal virus.

sporadic cases and outbreaks in humans of some non-human host viruses such as Ebola and Hanta raise the concern about future epidemics by other viruses in the new century.Over the past 10 years: As the global HIV epidemic continues. FourCorners Virus (Hanta) .

how they replicate. and how the host organism responds. and as vectors with strong potential for gene therapy. and how to confer immunity on the host. and is dependent upon. We also want to figure out how to prevent transmission. Molecular Biology. Mouse primary spleen cells transduced with a GFP (green fluorescent protein)-retrovirus vector . is therefore an outgrowth of both: Infectious diseases .because of the recognition of viral pathogens. The "applied" follows from. how to interfere with virus replicaton. the "basic" in a quite direct way.because of the usefulness of viruses as probes of cell and molecular biology and metabolism. Virology as it is studied today. We want to figure out how viruses are transmitted.THE DISCIPLINE OF VIROLOGY The study of virology inherently involves a merging together of what has traditionally been thought of as two separate "kinds" of science: basic and applied science.

with viruses that cause hepatitis. easy transmission to humans. plus resistant strains appear. but they are costly and toxic. mononucleosis. 50 million infected thus far Ebola: no vaccine. this is the only viral disease that has been wiped out worldwide Measles: effective vaccine since 1963. outbreaks controllable because people die quickly and human-human transmission is via blood Hanta: no vaccine. effective drugs. important host species unknown (found recently in chimps and rodents). diarrhea. World-wide spread continues via intimate contact. genital warts. rodent host. genital herpes. and some forms of cancer .WHERE WE STAND IN 2001: PREVENTING • CONTROLING • CURING VIRAL DISEASES Smallpox: effective vaccine. and our bodies. this disease could be eliminated with a world-wide effort Influenza: effective strain-specific vaccine. but new variant strains emerge periodically Polio: effective vaccine. will soon be the second viral disease wiped out HIV: no vaccine. but outbreaks controllable We also share the world. respiratory disease.

Within the Picornaviridae there are 5 genera: * * * * * enterovirus (alimentary tract). FMDV-C hepatovirus (liver).species . 3 cardiovirus (neurotropic).g.How are viruses classified ? Hierarchical virus classification: (order) family .subfamily . Rhinovirus 1a apthovirus (cloven footed animals ).g.g.g. e. 2. species e. species e.g. Hepatitis A virus . species e.strain/type All families have the suffix viridae.: * * * * Poxviridae Herpesviridae Parvoviridae Retroviridae Genera have the suffix virus. mengovirus rhinovirus (nasopharyngeal region). species e. poliovirus 1.genus . species e.g.

HIV.: Respiratory Syncytial virus.g.g.: Retrovirus.: Poxvirus.: Adenovirus. Hepadnavirus RSV v . e. e. e.g. Picornavirus. Hepatitis virus. e.: Epstein-Barr virus. Rift Valley Fever Biochemical features. e. Cytomegalovirus Site of isolation.g. Rhinovirus Places discovered or people that discovered them. measles virus Cytopathology they cause.g.Virus naming and classification Usually based on data available at the time of discovery: i ii iii iv Disease they are associated with. Enterovirus.

g. viral hepatitis is caused by at least 6 different viruses “Infectious” A NANB E Enterically transmitted F.These naming conventions can lead to confusion later. e. ? Other * Parenterally transmitted Viral hepatitis “Serum” B D C * 10-20% of cases of presumed viral hepatitis are still not accounted for . G..

g..Thus.g. e. the herpes viruses . Different viruses can cause (nearly) the same symptoms. different members of the same group can cause different symptoms. e. the hepatitis viruses However..

Herpesviruses     HSV VZV CMV EBV Herpes Simplex Virus Varicella Zoster Virus Cytomegalovirus Epstein-Barr Virus Cold sores (type 1). HHV-8…. HHV-7. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma  and HHV-6. Burkitt’s lymphoma. Genital lesions (type 2) Chicken pox Mononucleosis Mononucleosis.. (Human HerpesVirus-#) .

strand) dsRNA segmented RNA genetic organization sequence homology DNA sequence Hybridization Rotavirus .strand) dsDNA ssRNA (+ or .Virus Classification is now based principally on analysis of the particle: Morphology: by electron microscopy Serology: antigenic cross-reactivity Genetic material: form of nucleic acid ssDNA (+ or .

g. Pox Herpes Adeno Papova Parvo ssDNA Hepadna Partial dsDNA <---------------------------------------dsDNA--------------------------------------> Complex <---------------------------------------------Icosahedral--------------------------------------------------> <-----------------------------No------------------------------> Human adenovirus Papilloma AdenoAssociated Yes Hepatitis B <-----------------Yes------------------> Vaccinia virus Herpes simplex virus 2 Molluscum Contagiosum .Animal virus classification: DNA Viruses Family Genome Capsid symmetry Envelope e.

Plus-sense RNA viruses Family Genome Capsid symmetry Envelope e.g. Plus Sense RNA Viruses Corona Toga/Flavi Picorna Calici <-------------------------------------------ss (+) RNA---------------------------------------------> Helical Retro Diploid (+) RNA <--------------------------------------Icosahedral-------------------------------------------------> <---------------------No----------------------> Polio Norwalk agent Hepatitis A vi rus Hepatitis E virus Yes HIV-1 <----------------------Yes--------------------> Human corona Rubella virus virus Hepatitis C virus .

Orthomyxo Arena Bunya ss(-) RNA ss(+) or (+/-) ss(+) or (+/-) segments segments segments <---------------------------------------------------Helical-------------------------------------------------------> <----------------------------------------------------Yes-----------------------------------------------------------> Measles Mumps Parainfluenza Rabies virus Ebola virus Influenza virus Lassa virus Hanta virus Reo ds RNA segments Icosahedral No Rotavirus .g.Minus-sense RNA viruses Family Genome Minus Sense RNA Viruses Paramyxo Rhabdo Filo <-----------------ss(-) RNA------------------------> Capsid symmetry Envelope e.