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CURRICULUM & SYLLABOUS DESIGN IN TESL

Basic Tasks of Curriculum Development

Dr. Azadeh Asgari

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Basic Tasks of Curriculum Development
Purpose Goals Objectives

Needs Focusing Delivery to Student Curriculum Alignment
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Establishing the Philosophy
Philosophy  Miles and Bondi (1998) “Clarification of beliefs about the purpose, goals and objectives of instruction”.  Sample statements of purpose for national education systems: Australia:
1. Fullfilling lives and active citizenship. 2. Joining the workforce 3. Overcoming disadvantage and achieving fairness in society
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Establishing the Philosophy
People’s Republic of China (Red China):
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Develop good moral character Develop love of motherland Literacy and intellect Healthy bodies Interest in aesthetics

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Absence of educational philosophy- disjointed and fragmented educational program. Set the direction for various educational programs Should be documented Clear, consistent and easy to understand. Clarification of philosophy-develop personal belief statements. It is the base for decision-making in education 4 Joint effort at various levels – meaningful curriculum

Formulating Goals
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Statement of the intended outcomes of educational program. Derived from philosophy of the district Needs of the school population and unique characteristic of community The scope of the entire educational program Purposely broad Malaysian goals for Basic Education Vs U.S Goals for Youth Goals of Basic education

“The role of the school curriculum is to ensure the holistic development of the individual, mentally, physically, spiritually and emotionally through imparting general knowledge and skills, cultivating, instilling and fostering healthy attitudes and accepted moral values. The curriculum is to bring forth the Malaysian citizen who is balanced and well rounded individual trained, skilful and 5 cherishes the national aspiration”.

Formulating Goals
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U.S – neglect spiritual aspect Differentiate Malaysian educational goals from the U.S or Western educational goals. Holistic in nature Abd Rahman Doi as in Ghazali Basri (1991) states that integrated curriculum that develop spiritual aspect “…help to shape God-fearing, responsible citizen, loyal and willing to work hard for the prosperity of the society”.
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Formulating Goals
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U.S- focused and easy to understand Malaysian- seems to be too general and philosophic Misunderstanding and failure In the National Report on Analysis of the National Curriculum for Basic Education, “The weakness in dissemination strategy is another constraint. The cascade system of using key personnel has resulted in the dilution of messages which the curriculum planning and developers have conceptualized”
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Formulating Goals
Classifying Goals and Objectives  Educational Goals  Reflect the philosophical preferences of the writer
Levels of Goals for Educational Planning:  Broad and philosophical  More specific  Objectives-specific to classroom level
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Behavioral Objectives

Statements describe learners behavior during learning process.

Three Essential Elements:
 Terminal behavior  Conditions of expected behavior  Criteria of acceptable performance

Issue: behavioral objectives might lead to lower level of thinking process.
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Behavioral Objectives
Using objectives to Order Learning  Existence of discrepancy  Reasons:
- not refining goals and objectives - not specifying what the teacher is to do with students. - not defining what the student is to do after having taught

A Tool for “ordering” the Curriculum  3 taxonomies of learning:
- cognitive - affective - psychomotor
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Educational Objectives
Profile of Malaysian Secondary School Student  Express patriotic feelings and love for the country  Proficient in language and able to communicate effectively  Competent in Malay Language and use it as the official and national language  Think rationally, critically and creatively  Acquire knowledge and use mastery skills in daily living
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Educational Objectives

Cope with new areas of knowledge and development in technology
Confident and resilient to face challenges in life able to look after their health and physical fitness Appreciate the environment and its esthetic value Constantly strive to acquire knowledge
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