Foundations of Curriculum

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT & EVALUATION

Dr. Azadeh Asgari

1

What is Curriculum?
Any document or plan that exists in a school or school system that defines the work of teachers, at least to the extent of identifying the content to be taught student and the methods to be used in the process (English, 2000). The educative experiences learners have in an educational program. The purpose of which is to achieve broad goals and related specific objectives that have been developed within a framework of theory and research, past and present professional practice, and the changing needs of society (Parkay, 2006).
2

Concept of Curriculum
I. A systematic group of courses or sequence of subjects required for graduation or certification in a major field of study; II.A general overall plan of the content or specific materials of instruction that the college should offer the student by way of qualifying him for graduation or certification or for entrance into a professional or vocational field; III.A body of prescribed educative experiences under the supervision of an educational institute, designed to provide an individual with the best possible training and experience to fit him for the society of which he is a part or to qualify 3 him for a trade or a profession.

7 Common Concepts of Curriculum
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Scope and Sequence Syllabus Content Outline Standards Textbooks Course of Study Planned Experiences
(Posner, 2004)
4

Components of Curriculum
 Curriculum Design

-Creating the curriculum in schools
 Curriculum Delivery

-Implementation, supervising, monitoring or using feedback to improve the curriculum
 Curriculum Coordination

-Lateral focus and connectivity
 Curriculum Articulation

-Vertical focus and connectivity
5

Types of Curriculum
 

Formal Informal
-Values -Personality of teacher -Assessment


 

Hidden Written Taught Tested
6

Quality Curriculum
 Greater depth and less superficial coverage  Focus on problem solving  Facilitates the mastery of essential skill and knowledge  Coordinated  Articulation -multi-level sequence study  Emphasize academic and practical  Effective integrated curricula  Mastery of a limited number of objectives
7

Curriculum Goals
Provide general guidelines for determining the learning experiences to be included in the curriculum.
-Citizenship -Equal Educational Opportunity -Vocation -Self-realization -Critical Thinking
8

Bloom’s Taxonomy
Remembering: Student can recall or remember information (define, duplicate, list, memorize, recall, repeat, reproduce, state) Understanding: Student can explain ideas or concepts (classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate, recognize, report, select, translate, paraphrase) Applying: Student can use the information in a new way (choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write)

Analyzing: Student can distinguish between the different parts (appraise, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test)
Evaluating: Student can justify a stand or decision (appraise, argue, defend, judge, select, support, value, evaluate) Creating: Student can create new product or point of view (assemble, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, write)
9

Syllabus
 List of Subjects  Content outline for each subject  Broad time Allocations

10

Difference Between Syllabus & Curriculum
Functionally a ‘Syllabus’ is generally unidimensional in the sense it merely presents the content or the subject matter to be studied. Curriculum is three dimensional, because it takes into account: 1. the needs of the students, 2. the content (in terms of specific performances) 3. instructional methodology
11

Curriculum Approaches
• what is it that is desired of students having been taught using a curriculum (behavioral objectives).
• product = student equipped with knowledge, skills and values • emphasis on the content to be transmitted • syllabus (document listing the topics, the content and suggestions on how topics should be taught) 12

as:

• emphasis on interaction of teachers, students and knowledge. • teaching and learning process in classroom

Curriculum as a Discipline
IS CURRICULUM A DISCIPLINE?

Reflect on the characteristics of a discipline: A. have organized set of theoretical
principles

B. encompasses a body of

knowledge and

skills pertinent to that discipline

C. has theoreticians and practitioners
13

Curriculum as a Discipline
• in curriculum
planning there are principles such as educational philosophy, curriculum goals etc.

• apply ideas from
other disciplines & generated own ideas through research • e.g: selection of content relied on knowledge and skills from psychology • e.g: knowledge management and organizational theory used in organization content

• there are curriculum
planners, professors, curriculum developers who termed as curriculum specialist
• well-informed in areas relating to curriculum

• principles of content, sequence and balance in organization of content (curriculum design)

14

Foundations of Curriculum
Foundations of Curriculum philosophy history

psychology

sociology

These foundations have been used by curriculum design and development teams to decide on: - Goals of curriculum - Content - Organization of content - Teaching process
15

Four Phases of Curriculum Process
Design Phase Development Phase Implementation Phase Evaluation Phase

FEEDBACK LOOPS

Figure 1: Four Phases of Curriculum Process
16

CURRICULUM DESIGN PHASE
17

Curriculum Design Phase
a) What abilities the students possess on entry into the course? b) What abilities they will acquire on leaving the course? (as indicated by the job analysis)

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN (a) and (b) IS THE GAP THAT MUST BE BRIDGED WHEN DESIGNING THE CURRICULUM
18

Curriculum Design Phase
Formulation of the OBJECTIVES of the curriculum Job analysis Identification of knowledge and skill requirements Formulation of programme objectives Specification of entering behavior
19

Student Input Entering Behavior

Educational Process

Student Output Terminal Behavior

Figure 2: Learning as a change in behavior
20

Educational Objectives
PREREQUISITES OBJECTIVE

Course Description (content)
What the learner has to know before he starts the course What the learner measurably knows after successful completion of the course

CHANGE IN THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE LEARNER

Figure 3: Educational Objectives

21

Main Categories of Human Behavior
Knowledge (intellectual) Cognitive Domain

Attitudes (values)

Affective Domain

Psychomotor Domain

Figure 4: Main Categories of Human Behavior

22

Instructional Objectives
Instructional Objectives are statements that communicate in behavioral terms the expected performance of the students at the END of instruction.

23

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PHASE
24

Curriculum Development
Involves the following phases:
Curriculum planning •The decision about philosophy and aim of education Curriculum design • The way curriculum is conceptualized •Selection and organization of content & learning activities Curriculum evaluation • Determines the extent to which the curriculum has been successful
25

Curriculum implementation • Actualizing the curriculum entities

Curriculum Development Phase
TASKS TO BE UNDERTAKEN:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Sequencing the various subjects / courses Selecting the content in each subject Sequencing the units and topics Selecting instructional methods, instructional materials and media 5. Preparation of plans for instruction 6. Development of tests and other materials needed for evaluation of students performance 7. Orienting the teachers to the new curriculum.
26

Criteria of Utility, Variety & Flexibility
While making various decisions during the process of curriculum development three criteria, described below, are usually employed:
1. CRITERION OF UTILITY 2. CRITERION OF VARIETY 3. CRITERION OF FLEXIBILITY
27

Criteria To Be Used For Decision Making
1. CRITERION of UTILITY
Must know CONTENT Should know Nice to know
28

Criteria To Be Used For Decision Making
2. CRITERION of VARIETY

Interesting Variety of learning experiences

29

Criteria To Be Used For Decision Making
3. CRITERION of FLEXIBILITY

Horizontal and Vertical mobility Modular approach

Bridge Courses
Core and Elective Subjects
30

What are the Qualifying Professional Development Categories?
1. 2. 3. 4. College and University Coursework Conferences/Workshops & Training Sessions Collaborative and Partnership Activities Involvement in Development/Improvement Processes. 5. Individually-Guided Professional Development 6. Professional Leadership Experiences
31

Suggestions for Improving CDP
1. Specification of instructional objectives for each course (subject) of the programme. 2. Organizing the syllabus in terms of units, topics and subtopics. 3. Indicating the time allotted for teaching each unit of the course. 4. Assigning about 15% of the time allotted for each course for revision and conduct of tests. 5. Preparation and inclusion of a Table of Specifications (Blueprint) for construction of Question paper as an integral part of the curriculum, to ensure validity of the 32 question paper.

Suggestions for Improving CDP
6. Greater involvement of teachers in the various tasks of curriculum process.
 Conferring Academic autonomy to the colleges  Utilization of the services of Academic council members  Establishment of a Curriculum cell in each college  Board of Studies  Size and  Composition

7. Using the model curriculum as a base for curriculum revision (in various subjects).
33

CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION PHASE
34

Curriculum Implementation Phase
TASKS TO BE UNDERTAKEN:
1. Preparation of implementation plans. 2. Organizing in-service staff development programmes. 3. Effecting organizational changes like work distribution, role clarification, provision of support services and streamlining procedures and communication channels. 4. Actual implementation of the curriculum in the identified institutions. 5. Monitoring the implementation processes and evaluation of students performance. 6. Collection of feedback information.
35

Curriculum and Instruction

Curriculum => what is taught Instruction => how it‟s taught
Dualistic Model Curriculum Instruction

- Curriculum and instruction as 2 entities
36

Curriculum and Instruction
Curriculum

Concentric Model

Instruction

-Curriculum and instruction mutually interdependent
- Instruction is a subsystem of curriculum with curriculum dominating instruction
37

Curriculum and Instruction
Cyclical Model
Curriculum

Instruction

Curriculum makes a continuous impact on instruction and vice versa. Instructional decisions are made after curriculum decisions are made and later the curriculum decisions 38 are modified after being evaluated in classroom

Two Approaches to Curriculum
1. Academic Approach 2. Competency based Approach

39

Two Approaches to Curriculum
ACADEMIC
Subject Approach Knowledge Based Analysis of Subject Matter & Disciplines

COMPETENCY BASED
Systems Approach Job / Occupation Based Analysis of Policies, Labour Market and Occupations
40

Contd.

Two Approaches to Curriculum
ACADEMIC
Determining Level and Prerequisites Organise Curriculum According to Logic of the Discipline Develop Instruction

COMPETENCY BASED
Analysis of Job and Tasks Organise Curriculum According to way the job is done Develop Instruction
41

Contd.

Two Approaches to Curriculum
ACADEMIC COMPETENCY BASED
Who are the Learners? What Learning Objectives? What Learning Strategies? What Resources Needed?

What is to be learned? How will it be learned? What Texts / Materials? What Tests / Exams?

How Evaluate?
42

Intended Curriculum vs. Operational Curriculum
INTENDED CURRICULUM: Refers to the PRESCRIPTIONS in the curriculum document. The intended curriculum is an inert document containing the objectives of the curriculum, content

matter, time schedules and the performance standards
expected.
43

Intended Curriculum vs. Operational Curriculum
OPERATIONAL CURRICULUM

When an “intended curriculum” is enacted in a classroom or given life through teaching it becomes an “OPERATIONAL CURRICULUM”. It deals with the processes of teaching and learning, organisation of the class and the milieu in which instruction takes place.
44

Factors Influencing the Curriculum Implementation
1. FACTORS RELATED TO THE STUDENT:

 Aptitude for the subject  Proficiency in the language which is used as the medium of instruction

 Entering behavior
 Motivation
45

Factors Influencing the Curriculum Implementation
2. FACTORS RELATED TO THE TEACHER:

 Teacher preparedness  Teacher‟s resourcefulness

46

Factors Influencing the Curriculum Implementation
3. FACTORS RELATED TO THE INSTRUCTIONAL
ENVIRONMENT :

 Appropriateness of curricular objectives

 Adequacy of instructional time
 Instructional resources  Instructional methods and procedures  Task orientation of the class  Evaluation procedures used  Feedback provided to students
47

CURRICULUM EVALUATION PHASE
48

Curriculum Evaluation Phase
Curriculum evaluation can be defined as the collection and provision of evidence, on the basis of which decisions can be taken about the feasibility, effectiveness and educational value of curricula.

49

Why Should We Evaluate a Curriculum?
1. To bring the curricular content abreast of modern advances 2. To remove the „Dead Wood‟ from the curriculum 3. To improve the EFFECTIVENESS of the curriculum
EFFECTIVENESS = Actual Output Planned Output

4. To improve the Efficiency of curriculum Implementation process
EFFICIENCY = Output Input

5. To review the entry behavior requirements for admission into the course 6. To identify:
- How an “Intended Curriculum’ is enacted - How it becomes operational - The factors which may affect it and result in unintended effect

50

EFFECTIVENESS
Doing Right Things

EFFICIENCY
Doing Things In The Right Way

51

EFFECTIVENESS
ACTUAL OUTPUT PLANNED OUTPUT

Determination of the extent to which the objectives of the curriculum have been achieved.

52

EFFICIENCY
OUTPUT INPUT

Efficiency is related to the various kinds of COSTS (Money/Time/Space/Instructional Resources etc.) associated with the educational program.
53

Curriculum Evaluation Phase
THE ENTITY TO BE EVALUATED:

1. Whole curriculum of the program 2. Curriculum of a single course 3. Specific components like the objectives, course content, teachers‟ guide, textbook, audio-visual

aids,

teaching

methods

and

evaluation

procedures.
54

Curriculum Evaluation Phase
CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION:

1. 2. 3.

Outcomes Processes Fit to Standards

55

Criteria for Curriculum Evaluation
1. Outcomes: Outcomes should cover both short range and long-range ones. It should also take cognizance

of the unintended outcomes.

56

Criteria for Curriculum Evaluation
2. Processes: The Processes include: (i) Student participation in certain activities (ii) Interest in the program and (iii)The desired pattern of communication between students and teachers
57

Criteria for Curriculum Evaluation
3. Fit to Standards:
Standards may have their roots in:
a) Pedagogical principles:

Appropriate provision of feedback, reinforcement, sufficient amount of repetition etc. b) Communication principles: Clarity of presentation, proper significance, vocabulary control, multisensory cues, etc. c) Curricular principles: 58 Correspondence between objectives and planned activities.

Curriculum Evaluation Phase
Tasks to be undertaken:
1. Formative evaluation 2. Summative evaluation 3. Curriculum Improvement

59

TASKS

Curriculum Evaluation Phase
1. Formative evaluation:
This is carried out during the process of curriculum development. The evaluation results provide information to curriculum developers and enable them to correct flaws detected in the curriculum. The evaluation results may contribute to the formation of the curriculum and hence the notion of formative evaluation.

60

TASKS

Curriculum Evaluation Phase
2. Summative evaluation:
This is carried out after offering the curriculum once or twice. Such an evaluation will summarize the merits (as well as the weaknesses) of the program, hence the notion of summative evaluation. Summative evaluation of curriculum may aid in the specification of the optimal or minimal conditions for usage. Such results may serve the clients / customers in deciding whether they should use the program at all, or under what conditions (Availability of equipment, space, time, professional prerequisites etc.) they 61 should use it.

TASKS

Curriculum Evaluation Phase
3. Curriculum Improvement:
A curriculum that operates satisfactorily over a certain period of time may gradually become obsolete or deteriorate over time. To prevent this from occurring permanent follow-up and quality control of the program should be maintained. Quality control may reveal when some or all portions of the program should be altered or replaced. In this way quality control may lead toward the updating of an old program and production of “Second Generation Program”.
62

References
Beane, J. A., Toepfer Jr, C. F., & Alessi Jr, S. J. (1986) Curriculum Planning and Development Allyn and Bacon, Boston Brady, L., & Kennedy, K. (1999) Curriculum Construction, Prentice-Hall, Sydney Queensland Studies Authority (QSA) (2002a) “The Arts Modules”, from www.qsa.qld.edu.au/yrs1to10/kla/arts/modules.html Spady, W. G. (1993) Outcome-based Education: Workshop Report No 5, Australian Curriculum Studies Association, Belconnen, ACT Spady, W. G. (1994) Outcome-based Education: critical issues and answers, American Association of School Administrators,Virginia, USA Beretta, A (1992) Evaluation of Language Education an overview. In Alderson. J & J Beretta, A (eds.) Evaluating Second Language Education. Cambridge University Press. Brindley, G. (1989) “The role of needs analysis in adult ESL programme design” In R. K.Johnson (ed) Brown, J. D. (1995) The Elements of Language Curriculum, USA: Heinle & Heinle. Dubin, F. & Olshtain, E. (1997) Course Design: Developing Programs and Materials for Language Learning, Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. Finocchario, M. & Brumfit (1983) The Functional-Notional Approach, USA: Oxford University Press. Graves. K. (2001) Teachers as Course Developers. USA: Cambridge University Press. Graves, K. (2000) Designing Language Courses. Canada: Heinle & Heinle.. Hutchinson, T. & Waters, A (1996) ESP A learning centred approach. Great Britain Cambridge University Press. Jordan, R.R. (1997) English for Academic Purposes. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Lee, W. R. (1980) National Syllabuses Construction for Foreign-Language Teaching: Reconciling the Approaches ELT documents 108- Pgs.81-85, England: The British Council. Mackay, R. (1994) Understanding ESL/EFL programme review for accountability and improvement. ELT Journal Volume 48/2 McKay, S. (1978) Syllabuses: Structural, situational, notional. TESOL Newsletter,12(5),11. Moreno, P. (2000) The Implications of Curriculum Design for a Graduate of the English Language Program at Universidad Veracruzana. Unpublished dissertation. Mexico Munby, J. (1978) Communicative Syllabus Design. Cambridge University Press. Nunan, D. (2000 ) Syllabus Design, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Richards, J. (2001) Curriculum Development in Language Teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Richards, J. C, Hull, J., Proctor, S. & Shields, C. (2005) Interchange Third Edition. UK: Cambridge University Press. 63 Richards, Platt and Platt (1993) Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics. London: Longman. Robinson, P. (1990) ESP Today. Great Britain: Prentice Hall.