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DEFENCE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANISATION

JODHPUR
PRACTICAL TRAINING PRASENTATI ON ON NUCLEAR RADIATION

UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF: D.K. Tripathi SCIENTIST ‘E’ DEFENCE LABORATORY , JODHPUR

PRESENTED BY:

JYOTI MIRDHA VII SEM,ECE

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CONTENTS
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ABOUT DRDO INTRODUCTION OF NUCLEAR RADIATION ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION UNITS OF NUCLEAR RADIATION NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS RADIATION MONITORS APPLICATIONS OF NUCLEAR RADIATION

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 DRDO is working in various areas of military technology which include aeronautics.  It is responsible for the development and manufacture of electronics and materials. instrumentation engineering systems.  DRDO works to develope world class weapon system and equipment as per requirement of the military services. advanced computing. 4 . armaments . combat vehicles.ABOUT DRDO  DRDO was formed in 1958 from the union of already functioning technical development establishment of indian army . simulation and life sciences. electronics.

WHAT IS NUCLEAR RADIATION? Nuclear radiation can transfer the energy from nuclear decay to the electron of atoms or molecules and cause ionization. 5 .

WHAT TYPES IS ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ? OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION? 1. IONIZING RADIATION 6 . NON IONIZING RADIATION 2.

NON IONIZING RADIATION IS DEFINED AS RADIATION WITHOUT ENOUGH ENERGY TO REMOVE TIGHTLY BOUND ELECTRONS FROM THEIR ORBITS AROUND ATOMS. EXAMPLES -:VISIBLE LIGHT.TV WAVES.MICROWAVES 7 .RADIO WAVES.

X-RAYS.BETA RAYS.NEUTRONS 8 .IONIZING RADIATION IS DEFINED AS RADIATION WITH ENOUGH ENERGY TO REMOVE TIGHTLY BOUND ELECTRONS FROM THEIR ORBITS AROUND ATOMS DURING AN INTRACTION WITH AN ATOM. EXAMPLES-: ALPHA RAYS. GAMMA RAYS.

COULOMBS/KG WHAT IS MEASURED AMOUNT OF CHARGE PRODUCED IN ONE KG OF AIR BY X.SIEVERT(SV) 9 .GRAY(GY) DOSE EQUIVALENT REM.QUANTITY EXPOSURE COMMON UNITS ROENTGEN(R).OR GAMMA RAYS AMOUNT OF ENERGY ABSORBED IN ONE GRAM OF MATTER FROM RADIATION ABSORBED DOSE MODIFIED BY THE ABILITY OF THE RADIATION TO CAUSE BIOLOGICAL DAMAGE ABSORBED DOSE RED.

1) GEIGER-MUELLER (GM) TUBE DETECTORS SCINTILLATION DETECTORS SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS 2) 3) 10 .

GEIGER-MULLER(GM )TUBE 11 .

and around +400 Volts is applied to the thin wire in the middle.The tube is filled with Argon gas. 12 . When a particle enters the tube. the electron will knock other electrons from Argon atoms. This gives us a very sensitive detector. it pulls an electron from an Argon atom. and as it rushes towards the wire. creating a pulse which can be amplified and counted. Thus one single incoming particle will cause many electrons to arrive at the wire. causing an "avalanche". The electron is attracted to the central wire.

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they gain sufficient kinetic energy to eject several electrons at impact. This process produces an electron gain that is usually on the order of 106 to 108. This characteristic is exploited in the scintillation camera. Each dynode is at approximately 100 V higher potential than the preceding dynode. 14 . On average. then the total number of electrons collected at the anode for each emitted from the photocathode is 5N. the number of light photons striking the photocathode is in turn proportional to the total energy deposited in the crystal. an electrode coated with photosensitive material.Just inside the entrance window of the photomultiplier is the photocathode. As electrons are accelerated toward each dynode. If five electrons are ejected at each dynode and the photomultiplier have N dynodes. The overall response of the photomultiplier is linear because the output signal is proportional to the number of light photons striking the photocathode. one electron is emitted. The electron produced is then accelerated toward an electron multiplier system consisting of 10 or so specialized electrodes called dynodes. for every five scintillation photons striking the photocathode. where all photomultiplier signal outputs are summed to create a "Z" signal that is representative of the total energy deposited in the detector.

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gamma. 16 . Direct Ion Storage is used which uses the concept of ionization chamber. The charge induced.A floating gate MOSFET is basically a p-channel MOSFET with an electrically floating polysilicon gate that has a large extension over field oxide. The charge is created in the gas chamber by means of a charge pump & fabricated over the MOSFET. This reduces the concentration of holes in the p channel & thus reducing Ids. fast neutron & thermal neutron can be detected.By placing various converter layers. when the radiations fall over the chamber reduce the existing charges over the floating gate.

RADIATION MONITORS AND INSTRUMENTS  PERSONNEL MONITORING INSTRUMENTS PORTAL MONITORS 17 .

AREA MONITORS 18 .

SURVEY METERS 19 .

STACK & DUCT MONITORS  20 .RADIATION MONITORS  NUCLEAR COUNTING SYSTEM  NIM INSTRUMENTATION  PORTABLE RADIATION MONITORS  AREA GAMMA MONITORS  COUNTING AIR MONITORS.

NAUSEA HEMORRHAGING.EFFECT OF RADIATIONS DOSE(rem) 0-25 26-50 51-100 101-200 201-500 500 EFFECT NO EFFECT SMALL DECREASE IN WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNT SIGNIFICANT DECREASE IN WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNT LOSS OF HAIR.DEATH IN 50% OF POPULATION DEATH 21 .ULCERS.

 MEDICAL  INDUSTRY  FOOD  AGRICULTURE  HOUSEHOLD 22 .

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