14 views

Uploaded by Dr. Azadeh Asgari

Azadeh Asgari is a PhD candidate in the Department of Languages & Humanities, Faculty of Educational Studies, University Putra Malaysia (UPM), Selangor, Malaysia. She also holds a Master of Science in TESL from Universiti Putra Malaysia (2009). Her research interests include second language attrition/acquisition and L2 writing.

save

- Quota Sampling Technique
- CRIM 6
- Statistical Skills
- d9be7amizone Hypothesis Testing
- mk0050
- 2251_w12_qp_12
- Occasional Sampling in Research
- Chapter 1 Notes
- Bio Statistics
- Mk0004 Solved Assignment
- Math_2200_Section_1_4-1_6
- Ssc Cgle Syllabus
- Ringkasan Statu
- Theresa Hughes Data Analysis and Surveying 101
- Sample MBA Sem3 Summer 2015
- Cultural Influence on Strategic Human Resource
- Business Research Methods Unit 2
- Comparative Economic Analysis of Upland and Lowland Rice
- 2334-96381202069D.pdf
- Introduction 3 Later Latest Edition Neww 999 Nhasi
- faraz
- verka consumer perception
- My PCC Report (1)
- Barwa Kar
- Anil (MMT)
- Crm in Bajaj
- Short Text Coherence Hypothesis
- Sampling
- Research Methods II
- 10.Introduction to Hypothesis Testing.docx
- The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) - Version 2
- ESL Composition Profile (Javobs, 1981)
- Word Associates Test (WAT)
- Topics and Standard Instructions From MELAB Assessment Battery
- Writing Test Sheet for Prompt B
- The TOEFL Writing Test
- AMTB Questionnaire
- The Role of Knowledge Management’s KSF in the Malaysian e-Business Environment
- The Basis of the Questionnaire from Gardner’s (1985) AMTB
- The Semi-Structure Interview
- Reading Section of IELTS
- Background Questionnaire
- The Investigation of Key Success Factors on Knowledge Management in Malaysian Firms
- General Background Questionnaire (GBQ)
- Key of Items for AMTB Questionnaire
- Sample of Consent Form for Quality
- Sample of Consent Form
- The Attitude Motivation Test Battery
- Six-Point Analytic Rating Scale
- Sample Review Cloze Activity..
- Sample of Consent Form for Participants
- Questionnaire
- The Attitude Motivation Test Battery, 3-Points
- Standards-Based Measurement of Proficiency (STAMP) Test
- Qualities of a Good Paragraph
- Rubric for Out-Of-class Writing
- Sample of Consent Forms
- Rubric for Out-Of-class Writing
- Students Demographic Survey
- Sample Review Cloze Activity

You are on page 1of 30

POPULATION & SAMPLE

Dr. Azadeh Asgari

Population & Sample

POPULATION:

**all individuals in a group that has similar characteristics (one or more) to be studied by the researcher.
**

e.g.: all counselors; all male teachers teaching in secondary schools; all UPM students

Population & Sample

SAMPLE: 1. Part of a chosen population to be observed and analyzed. 2. By observing the randomized samples’ characteristics, several inferences on the population may be made. 3. Differences between sample, subjects, respondents.

Parameter & Statistics

Parameter:

**values obtained from a population.
**

Statistics:

values obtained from a sample

Randomization

Basic to scientific observations and research Assumption – even if we cannot precisely

predict specific events (e.g.: Individual’s achievement), but we can precisely predict the average/mean achievement of the group

Types of Sampling

1. Probability Sampling

2. Non-probability Sampling

**Types of Probability Sampling
**

1. Simple random sampling / selection 2. Systematic sampling

3. Stratified sampling

4. Cluster sampling

Randomization of Sample

BASIC TO RANDOMISATION = simple randomization = every individual in the group has equal opportunity (equal chance) to be chosen i.e. not biased Choosing one subject is independent of the others . Researcher can assume that the characteristics of the sample approximate the characteristics of total population

Sampling Frame

Assigning a number to all individuals in a population. Using the sampling frame, the sample is chosen / drawn.

**Simple Random Sampling (selection)
**

Using:

a. Fish Bowl Technique

**b. Table of Random Numbers
**

c. Computer Generated Numbers

**Table of Random Numbers
**

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 _____________________________________________________________ _ 1 10480 15011 01536 02011 81647 91646 69179 14194 62590 36207 2 22368 46573 25595 85393 30995 89198 27982 53402 93965 34095 3 24130 48360 22527 97265 76393 64809 15179 24830 49340 32081 4 42167 93093 06243 61680 07856 16376 39440 53537 71341 57004 5 37570 39975 81837 16656 06121 91782 60468 81305 49684 60672 6 77921 06907 11008 42751 27756 53498 18602 70659 90655 15053 7 99562 72905 56420 69994 98872 31016 71194 18738 44013 48840 8 96301 91977 05463 07972 18876 20922 94595 56869 69014 60045 9 89579 14342 63661 10281 17453 18103 57740 84378 25331 12566 10 85475 36857 53342 53988 53060 59533 38867 62300 01858 17893

Systematic Sampling

Steps: a. Calculate the Interval b. Draw the Initial Number c. Select the Other Sample

Systematic Sampling

In this technique, randomization is done only on the initial number. Drawing the initial number, fixed the other individuals in the sampling frame.

**Weakness of Systematic Sampling
**

There are numbers which do not have equal opportunity to be chosen – thus a slight biasness. Choice of a subject depends on another.

Stratified Sampling

To reduce sampling error and to increase precision without increasing sample size. To ensure all strata are represented (not different from the population) In a stratum the population is more homogenous

e.g.: socio economic status, gender, level of intelligence, level of anxiety

If variance is reduced and therefore, sampling error will be reduced

Stratified Sampling

Steps: 1) Determine the ratio between the strata 2) Ensure the sample size 3) Divide the number of sample according to the initial ratio within the population 4) Select the sample using randomisation technique

Cluster Sampling

Sampling is according to clusters and not

**individuals within each cluster
**

Conducted if individuals to be sampled are

not known

This technique maintained the principles of

randomisation

Cluster Sampling

Need not know individuals within each cluster. If the clusters within the population are far apart . Very suitable and more precise if many small clusters are chosen, therefore similar to the population. Not suitable if a large cluster is chosen since it

may not represent the population. Sampling error is even larger if a big and homogeneous cluster is selected.

**Types of Non-Probability Sampling
**

Sample of Convenience or Accidental Sampling

– Weak sampling procedure – Using available cases for the research e.g.: Interviewing the first individual you meet;

using you volunteers class students; interviewing

**Types of Non-Probability Sampling
**

Purposive Sampling - Judgment Sampling

Sampling element is decided to represent the population. e.g.: Interviewing all possible voters in a district, and using the result to predict the voting pattern for the whole state

Sampling Error

Randomized sample may not represent population. Variations my occur, called SAMPLING ERROR . This variation is not an error caused by the researcher, but it occurs as a result of the sampling process.

**Selection of Biased Sample
**

I. From a telephone directory

**II. From a list of magazine subscribers
**

III. From a list of registered vehicles

Sampling Error (e)

Often occurs if the mean sample is used to estimate mean population. Refers to the difference between population parameter and the sample statistics. _

E = x-µ

Sample Size

Large enough so that it is representative of the population.

** Crucial issue is representativeness & not the sample size
**

e.g.: Sample of 200 which has been randomly selected is better than a randomly selected sample of 100; but a randomly selected sample of 100 is better than a biased sample of 2.5 million individuals.

**Aspects in Determining Sample Size
**

ECONOMY – researcher’s financial situation MANAGEABLE SAMPEL SIZE by researcher – during data collection VALIDITY – a large enough size needed for high validity RELIABILITY - a large enough size needed for high reliability UTILIZATION OF INFERENTIAL STATISTICS – depends of the type of inferential statistics to be used

– – – – – Descriptive – large Inferential – correlation, minimum 30 Inferential – comparing two groups, 30 for each group Inferential – comparing more two groups, 30 for each group Experimental – small

Hypothesis Testing

Testing null hypothesis using different tests

**based on type of measurement scales and data.
**

Make decision on the null hypothesis. Make decision on the alternative hypothesis.

**Type I & II Error Scheme
**

HO TRUE REJECT HO TYPE I ERROR HO FALSE CORRECT ACTION

ACCEPT HO CORRECT ACTION

TYPE II ERROR

Type I & II Error

Type I Error Rejecting a true null hypothesis

e.g. Rejecting ho = there exist no relationship between both variables – which is true

**Type II Error Accepting a false null hypothesis
**

e.g.

Accepting ho = there exist no relationship between both variables – which is false

Level of Significance

Researcher needs to weigh the consequences of type I and ii errors before conducting the research (how strong the evidence must be before they would reject ho). Level at which ho may be rejected = level of significance

Level of Significance

Researcher may avoid type I error by accepting ho all the time. Or avoid type II error by rejecting it all the time. Reducing the value of level of significance (from .05 to .01 or .001) reduces the risk of doing a type I error but increases the risk of doing a type II error.

- Quota Sampling TechniqueUploaded byGilbert Dinglasan Paradero
- CRIM 6Uploaded byr brrm
- Statistical SkillsUploaded byrebeccashannon94
- d9be7amizone Hypothesis TestingUploaded bymacpiyush
- mk0050Uploaded byEvildude Santhu
- 2251_w12_qp_12Uploaded bymstudy123456
- Occasional Sampling in ResearchUploaded bysasum
- Chapter 1 NotesUploaded byisis
- Bio StatisticsUploaded byMaria Delma Regalado Oliveros
- Mk0004 Solved AssignmentUploaded byVijay Kumar
- Math_2200_Section_1_4-1_6Uploaded byRonel Pasalo Medina Batangan
- Ssc Cgle SyllabusUploaded byBhushan Mohan
- Ringkasan StatuUploaded byMuhammad Syah
- Theresa Hughes Data Analysis and Surveying 101Uploaded byYoungtae Kim
- Sample MBA Sem3 Summer 2015Uploaded byAmar Goel
- Cultural Influence on Strategic Human ResourceUploaded byBadhan Mustary
- Business Research Methods Unit 2Uploaded byvezay
- Comparative Economic Analysis of Upland and Lowland RiceUploaded byAlexander Decker
- 2334-96381202069D.pdfUploaded bynurul jannah
- Introduction 3 Later Latest Edition Neww 999 NhasiUploaded byIshie
- farazUploaded byTalha Basham
- verka consumer perceptionUploaded byrobin2day
- My PCC Report (1)Uploaded byvaishali garg
- Barwa KarUploaded bySOHEL BANGI
- Anil (MMT)Uploaded byabhinavabhi123
- Crm in BajajUploaded byVinod Reddy
- Short Text Coherence HypothesisUploaded byAnita Jankovic
- SamplingUploaded bycrisafutu
- Research Methods IIUploaded byAnna Mkrtichian
- 10.Introduction to Hypothesis Testing.docxUploaded byFaithMayfair

- The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) - Version 2Uploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- ESL Composition Profile (Javobs, 1981)Uploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- Word Associates Test (WAT)Uploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- Topics and Standard Instructions From MELAB Assessment BatteryUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- Writing Test Sheet for Prompt BUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- The TOEFL Writing TestUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- AMTB QuestionnaireUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- The Role of Knowledge Management’s KSF in the Malaysian e-Business EnvironmentUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- The Basis of the Questionnaire from Gardner’s (1985) AMTBUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- The Semi-Structure InterviewUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- Reading Section of IELTSUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- Background QuestionnaireUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- The Investigation of Key Success Factors on Knowledge Management in Malaysian FirmsUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- General Background Questionnaire (GBQ)Uploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- Key of Items for AMTB QuestionnaireUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- Sample of Consent Form for QualityUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- Sample of Consent FormUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- The Attitude Motivation Test BatteryUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- Six-Point Analytic Rating ScaleUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- Sample Review Cloze Activity..Uploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- Sample of Consent Form for ParticipantsUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- QuestionnaireUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- The Attitude Motivation Test Battery, 3-PointsUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- Standards-Based Measurement of Proficiency (STAMP) TestUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- Qualities of a Good ParagraphUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- Rubric for Out-Of-class WritingUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- Sample of Consent FormsUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- Rubric for Out-Of-class WritingUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- Students Demographic SurveyUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari
- Sample Review Cloze ActivityUploaded byDr. Azadeh Asgari