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Adam Day

     Applications Classification Common watermarking methods Types of verification/detection Implementing watermarking using wavelets .

 Copyright Protection ◦ Invisibly mark products  Manage distribution of assets ◦ Apply unique watermark key to each copy of a distributed video/image   Embed all necessary data in a single image Naturally expands to video watermarking .

. The diagonals of Σ are called the singular values of A The columns of U are called the left singular vectors of A and The columns of V are called the right singular vectors of A.. Simple  Transformed Domain ◦ DCT ◦ DWT ◦ SVD       ◦ Spatial Domain – Modification made to the luminance values Product of 3 matrices A = UΣVT U .). . λ2.. VTV = I Σ = diag (λ1.V are orthogonal matrices: UTU= I.

 An effective watermark should be: ◦ Robust to common manipulations ◦ Unobtrusive so that it does not affect visual quality  Categorize based on: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Capacity Complexity Invertibility Robustness Security Transparency Verification .

 Fragile ◦ Detection fails with even minor modification ◦ Useful in tampering detection ◦ Common in simple additive watermarking  Robust ◦ Detection is accurate even under modification ◦ Need for robustness dependent on use of data .

 Non-blind ◦ The watermarking scheme requires the use of the original image  Semi-Blind ◦ The watermarking scheme requires the watermark data and/or the parameters used to embed the data  Blind ◦ If the watermarking scheme does not require the original image or any other data .

LH and HH sub-bands LL LH HL HH . The 2D-DWT Transform divides the image into 4 sub-bands ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ LL – Lower resolution version of image LH – Horizontal edge data HL – Vertical edge data HH – Diagonal edge data  Most DWT watermarking algorithms embed only in the HL.

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◦ Perform 2D-DWT to divide image into LL. HL. HL. ◦ Select coefficients from the LL. LH and HH sub-bands. LH and HH subbands that surpass a particular threshold T1 ◦ Embed watermarking data via additive modification t’i = ti + α|ti|xi ◦ Perform 2D-IDWT to create “watermarked image” xi = watermark α = weighting constant .

the number of affected coefficients can vary greatly Images with a greater number of edges will hold more watermarking data Difference .Difference    Modifications to edge data create the least visually perceptible changes If using a hard threshold to select coefficients.

Original Watermarked Original Watermarked .

HL. ◦ Select coefficients from each sub-band that surpass a threshold T2>T1. Method ◦ Perform 2D-DWT to divide image into LL. between the coefficients of the received image (ti*) > T2 and a particular watermark (yi ). LH and HH sub-bands. . ◦ Compute the correlation z.

Detection Occurs when z>Tz.   Compute the threshold Tz. Comparison versus other incorrect watermarks show that the correct watermark is the only one that surpasses the threshold 20 15 Threshold 10 5 0 -5 0 50 100 150 200 250 Watermarks .

 DWT Watermarking schemes work well against most forms of image modification ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Jpeg Compression Downsampling -> Upsampling Gaussian Noise Median Filtering   Technique does not work well in cases of image rotation Dependent on pixel location .

alpha = 0.T1 = 15.4 80 Horizontally Flipped Image .Med Filt Applied Watermarked Watermarked Median Filter Applied .T1 = 15.4 60 40 20 0 0 -2 0 -20 0 50 100 150 200 250 50 100 150 200 250 50 100 150 200 250 .Watermarked .T1 = 15.4 6 4 2 60 40 20 0 -20 0 Gaussian Noise Applied . alpha = 0. alpha = 0.

but fail when significant pixels are moved from their original location .  DWT-Based watermarking methods are fast /robust and protect against most forms of manipulation Schemes based on pixel dependency are robust in most forms of image manipulation.