You are on page 1of 11

Research Methodology


Dr. Azadeh Asgari

Qualitative Research

 Piaget’s research on development of children



 Case studies on under enrolled schools in Tehran

 Ethnograph studies on abroginies in the district of gombak

Qualitative Research
Types of Qualitative Research :

1. Case studies

2. Developmental research
3. Historical research 4. Ethnograph studies

Case Studies
to do an in depth study;

background, current status and/or environmental factors that interact for each group (individual, institution or community)

Characteristics Of Case Studies
 It gives very detail information about
individuals / group / community.  It may give a detailed explanation of a complete life cycle or part of it.  Number of cases studied may be small but the number of variables studied are usually more and more in depth if compared to a survey.

Developmental Research
Conducted to research on the development of individuals / group / institution / community
TWO TYPES: 1. Cross-sectional 2. Longitudinal

Historical Research
Used to gain information on an event, development and/or previous educational experience. Process may involve studying previous situation, checking on current situation, and to predict if the same situation will occur again

Historical Research

Conclusion on previous event is done based on collected facts and evidences to answer why and how the event, development and educational experience occurred. Useful to solve problems that involve sensitive issues Important for collecting and defining facts and evidences systematically & objectively

Procedure for Historical Research
1. Define the problem 2. Specify source of evidence 3. Collect evidence / reference materials
 Primary source / original (observation or witnesses of events or authentic objects – eg. Artifacts, speech text, records etc.)  Secondary source (materials or information collected from primary sources eg. Paintings, films, news reports, documents - dangerous – may be confusing)

Procedure For Historical Research
4. Critique of evidences
 External critique: confirming if collected sources are genuine and reliable (authenticity of paintings, signatures, chemical analysis etc.)  Internal critique: conducted after authenticity of source of information is confirmed – involves evaluation of collected evidences– is it important? Required? Able to explain the researched phenomenon?

5. Prepare the report

Ethnograph Research
 In depth study of natural behaviours in a culture or social group  Purpose – to understand relationships between behaviour and culture  Also refers to the research findings  In education – to understand schooling process (eg. Immigrant children)  Involves widespread observations (participant & nonparticipant)  Starts research without hypothesis -- hypothesis is developed in the process of observations, and the researcher explores and test his hypothesis