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AE-310 Engineering Design Optimization

Capsule-1

Example problem

Predict the maximum value of the function : y(x) = 3cos(4 π x-1.3)+5cos(2πx+0.5)

4 π x − 1.3 = 2πn

2 π x + 0.5 = 2πk, let n,k are integers. π=

2.3 2(2𝑘−𝑛)

=

23 20(2𝑘−𝑛)

**As π is a irrational number, so there are no integers n,k. So ymax(x) < 8 And ymax(x) = 5.7811
**

AE-310 Engineering Design Optimization Capsule-1

**Using Algebra to find Minimums
**

To enclose a rectangular plot of land with a fixed length of fencing, what should be the length and breadth of the plot to cover maximum area ? y x

All rectangle with given perimeter, SQUARE has the largest area. Or, All rectangle with given area, SQUARE has the smallest perimeter.

AE-310 Engineering Design Optimization Capsule-1

Example

Two points (A and B) not on a line. Where should be the point ‘C’ be located on the line so that the sum of the squares of the distances from C to A and C to B, (AC)2 + (BC)2 is maximum ? B

A

c

a

C x

b

AE-310 Engineering Design Optimization Capsule-1

**A Civil Engineering problem
**

There are two towns A and B opposite side of a river with constant width ‘w’. As shown in the fig. ‘A’ is distance ‘a’ from the river, B is distance ‘b’, and the lateral separation of the two towns is d. Where should we build a bridge over the river (perpendicular to the river’s banks) so as to make the journey between A and B as short as possible ?

B

w

River

x

a b

A

d

AE-310 Engineering Design Optimization

Capsule-1

Solution

Total distance from A to B : 𝑇 = (𝑎2 +𝑥 2 + 𝑤 + 𝑏 2 + 𝑑 − 𝑥 Using ‘Triangle inequality’.. That is a+b>c for a triangle. 𝑎 + 𝑥 + 𝑑 − 𝑥 + 𝑏 is a constant. Here w is a constant, 𝑎 + 𝑥 + 𝑑 − 𝑥 + 𝑏 ≥ |𝑎 + 𝑑 + 𝑏| As, 𝛼 = 𝜃 , Or, 𝑥 =
𝑎𝑑

𝑎+𝑏 𝑎 𝑥

B

2 𝜃

w River

= 𝑏

𝑑−𝑥

x

a
𝛼

b

A

d

AE-310 Engineering Design Optimization

Capsule-1

The AM-GM Inequality

In the year 1954 famous mathematician G.Ehlers came out with the great proof of AM-GM inequality using only simple algebra and induction, but no

calculus.

**What is AM-GM inequality ? If x1,x2, …..,xn are any n positive numbers, 𝑛 ≥ 1, And if 𝐴 =
**

1 𝑛
𝑥

**1 +𝑥2 +𝑥3 … . . +𝑥𝑛 is the arithmetic mean of the of the x’s
**

1 𝑛

And if 𝐺 = 𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑥3 … . . 𝑥𝑛

is the geometric mean of 𝑥′s,

**Then 𝐴 ≥ 𝐺 with equality iff 𝑥1 = 𝑥2 = 𝑥3 = ⋯ . . = 𝑥𝑛 .
**

AE-310 Engineering Design Optimization Capsule-1

Triangle Problem

Of all triangles with a given area, show that it is the equilateral that has the smallest perimeter. A
𝐴

= 𝑠 𝑠 − 𝑎 𝑠 − 𝑏 𝑠 − 𝑐 𝑎 + 𝑏 + 𝑐 𝑝 𝑠 = = 2 2 𝑎 + 𝑏 + 𝑐 −𝑎 + 𝑏 + 𝑐 𝑠 − 𝑎 = − 𝑎 = >0 2 2 B

a

c C

b

^(1/3)

**We know for a triangle "b+c>a"
𝑠**

− 𝑎 𝑠 − 𝑏 𝑠 − 𝑐 𝑠 𝑠 − 𝑎 𝑠 − 𝑏 𝑠 − 𝑐 = ≥ 3 3 1 𝑠 − 𝑎 = 𝑠 − 𝑏 = 𝑠 − 𝑐 𝑖𝑓𝑓 𝑎 = 𝑏 = 𝑐

AE-310 Engineering Design Optimization

Capsule-1

Cylinder

A food can (both end sealed) with a given volume V is to have the of a right circular cylinder. What are the dimensions of the can (radius r and height h) so that the surface area is minimum ?
𝑆

= 2𝜋𝑟 2 + 2𝜋𝑟ℎ
𝑉

= 𝜋𝑟 2 ℎ 𝑆 = 2𝜋 𝑟 2 𝑉 + 𝜋𝑟
𝑆

1 𝑉 𝑉 = (𝑟 2 + + ) 6𝜋 3 2𝜋𝑟 2𝜋𝑟

AE-310 Engineering Design Optimization Capsule-1

From AM-GM inequality,

1 2 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉 2 𝑟 + + ≥ 𝑟 + + 3 2𝜋𝑟 2𝜋𝑟 2𝜋𝑟 2𝜋𝑟

1 3

= 𝑉

2 4𝜋 2

1 3 𝑆

≥ 6𝜋 𝑉

2 4𝜋 2

1 3

Or, 𝑆 ≥ 6𝜋 𝑉

2 4𝜋2

1 3 1 3

Thus the surface area is never less than value when 𝑟 2 = 𝑉

2 4𝜋2

, and equal to the minimum

i.e. , when 𝑉 = 𝑉

𝑉 = 2𝜋𝑟 2𝜋𝑟 2𝜋𝑟 3 .

AE-310 Engineering Design Optimization

Capsule-1

**A Problem from Physics
**

When a cannon pointing straight up, directly away from the center of the earth, fires a shell at initial velocity v0 . The shell rises upwards, slows down due to gravity, halts and again falls down. But for a certain value of v0 the shell will never return to earth, i.e. Escape velocity. Calculate Escape velocity. Only considering gravitational force in action, then Acceleration of the shell 𝑣
𝑑𝑣

𝑑𝑟 𝑣 2 2 1 𝐺𝑀 𝑟 𝑑 2 𝑟 𝑑𝑡 2

Shell

Cannon

Earth

= 𝑑𝑣

𝑑𝑡

= 𝑑𝑟

𝑑𝑣 . 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑟

=

=

+ 𝐶

If, R is the radius of Earth M is mass of earth G is universal gravity constant Capsule-1

AE-310 Engineering Design Optimization

**Minimizing with a computer
**

A man can walk n times faster than he can swim (n>=1). He wants to travel from A, on the of a circular lake with radius R (centered on point O) to C, also on the edge of the lake. C’s location is specified by the given angle β(measured from the diameter AOD), as shown in figure. His general strategy is to first swim along the chord AB, and then to walk the rest of the way along the lake’s edge from B to C. if his total travel time is T, then where should be B to minimize T? 2𝛼 + 𝜋 − 𝜃 − 𝛽 = 𝜋 𝑟𝑎𝑑 𝛼 = (𝜃 + 𝛽)/2 𝜃 + 𝛽 𝑅𝜃 𝑇 = 2𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑠 + 2 𝑛 𝑇 𝜃 + 𝛽 𝜃 = 2 cos + 𝑅 2 𝑛 𝜃=central angle subtended by the man’s walk π-2α=central angle subtended by the man’s swim Men’s swimming distances Men’s walking distances total travel time = = = 2𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑅𝜃 T
𝜃

+𝛽 2

AE-310 Engineering Design Optimization

Capsule-1

**Total travel time across the lake when beta=0
**

total travel time across the lake, beta=0 3.5

n=1.0 3

2.5

n=1.5

T/R

n=2.0 2 n=2.5

n=3.0 1.5

1

0

20

40

60

80 theta(in degrees)

100

120

140

160

180

AE-310 Engineering Design Optimization

Capsule-1

**Total time travel across the lake when beta=90 degree
**

total time across the lake, beta=90 degrees

1.6

n=1.0

1.4

1.2

T/R

n=1.5

1

n=2.0

n=2.5 0.8 n=3.0

0.6

0.4

0

10

20

30

40 50 theta (in degrees)

60

70

80

90

AE-310 Engineering Design Optimization

Capsule-1

There would be a critical value of n for which either of the pure walk-only and swim-only strategies would give a minimum travel time What is that critical value of n? As n increases from unity the strategy for minimizing the total travel time begins as the pure strategy of swimming all the way and then switches to the pure strategy of walking all the way. Is that true for any value of β?

AE-310 Engineering Design Optimization

Capsule-1

AE-310 Engineering Design Optimization

Capsule-1

maximus,minimus

maximus,minimus

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