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# Basic Statistic

STATISTIC CONCEPTS IN RESAERCH

Measurement Scales
  

Measurement is the process of assigning values to whatever variable being measured. Classification of measured variables = measurement scales. There are FOUR scales:
1. nominal, 2. ordinal, 3. interval, 4. Ratio.

1. Nominal Measurement Scale
 Measured by categories or labels  Given codes / categories are in numerical values / alphabet  Used to measure qualitative variables
 e.g.: gender, race, program of

study, types of houses, type of cars

Lowest level of measurement

2. Ordinal Measurement Scale

Measurement also in the form of categories / labels, but are arranged in order. Each given value shows level of rating. Suitable for qualitative & quantitative variables.

3. Interval Measurement Scale

Measurement is in quantitative scores / values Given / measured quantities may have +ve / -ve values Suitable for quantitative variables
e.g.: Performance in a subject, IQ scores, levels
of self-concept, job satisfaction levels

4. Ratio Measurement Scale
 Measurement is in quantitative values  For all variables that have absolute zero value  Given/measured quantities may have +ve/ -ve, and ratio values
 e.g.: Training time, number of mistakes,
time taken to run 100m, body weight, distance travelled

Type of Variables
CONTINUOUS VARIABLE:  Variables that do not have a minimum unit value.  Conceptually, the value may occur till infinity. e.g.: Distance measured, score, time, age DISCRETE VARIABLE  Variables that use finite countable minimum unit value  Use whole numbers most of the time  Value cannot be subdivided further e.g.: Number of children, number of cars, number of programs

Statistics

A mathematical technique or process to collect, organize, analyze, and interpret numerical data obtained from an observed group for a researched group. Sometimes used for describing collected numerical data.

Data Statistics
Describes group behaviour or characteristics obtained through observations on individuals in a group, so that generalizations may be made.
e.g.: Mean of monthly income = rm3,000.00
Mean age of year 4 students = 10 years

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN POPULATION & SAMPLE
POPULATION SAMPLE
DATA FROM SAMPLE?

DATA FROM POP?

INFERENTIAL STAT.

DESCRIBE THE POP.

Quantitative Research
Descriptive

Purpose is just to describe a studied group

Inferential  Purpose is to describe a population based on collected data from a sample

 e.g.: To study teacher
attitude towards use of corporal punis.hment

Descriptive Statistics

Method of describing observed, processed, and analyzed data. Main purpose is to obtain a picture or description of the observed data.

Another purpose is to give meaning and to summarize the data.

Descriptive Statistics
Quantitatively
• Describing using numeric values or quantities • Contains texts described using quantitative data analysis

Qualitatively
• Describing in the form of pictures, texts, etc.

Descriptive Statistics

Organizing data so that it would be more meaningful (quantitative) – Tables – Measures of central tendencies
Using pictures (qualitative) – Pie / bar charts – Histograms – Polygon frequencies

Technique of Describing Data – Using Pictures
Nominal or Ordinal Data
   

Interval or Ratio Data

Frequency distribution table Bar chart Pie chart Contingency table

  

Frequency distribution table Histogram Polygon frequency Scatter diagram Regression line

Frequency Distribution Table
RESULTS A B C D E F TOTAL M F

Contingency Table
BEd.TESL AGREE TO PUNISHMENT 120 BEd.(G&C) 18 TOTAL 138

DO NOT AGREE TO PUNISHMENT
TOTAL

20

98

118

140

116

256

Technique of Describing Data – Measures of Central Tendencies

Mode
– Nominal data – Most frequently occurring score – Commonly used measurement

Median
– Ordinal data – Middle measurement – Suitable for skewed distribution

Mean
– – – –
Interval or ratio data Typical measurement Average measurement Suitable for further analysis

Measures of Central Tendency

Normal Curve

mode median mean

Skewed to the Right (+ve)

mode median

mean

Skewed to the Left (-ve)

mean median mode

Variability

a. Homogeneous b. Heterogeneous

Measures of Variability
 Range: highest minus lowest score  Interquartile Range: describes range

of

values for middle 50% of scores  Semi- Interquartile Range: describes avg. Spread of scores for 25% above and below the median  Standard Deviation: provides index of the average amount by which scores deviate from the mean  Variance: similar to standard deviation

Inferential Statistics
Method of making conclusion on the researched population based on observations made on the sample . e.g.:
– Mean Difference – Analyses of Relationships

Process of describing or estimating the population characteristics using the characteristics of samples that are representative of the population.

Inferential Strategies

Estimation – estimating the parameter value based on sample statistics. Hypothesis Testing – testing the extent the parameter value is similar to the value observed from the sample.

Inferential Precision

Sample Size

Variability of Population Data
Representativeness of Observed Sample, Taking into Consideration the Correct Sampling Procedure Used

Inferential Technique

Parametric Test Making Assumptions on the Population From Which the Sample Was Selected.

More Powerful Than Nonparametric Tests & Able to Show Differences or True Relationships.

Assumptions of Parametric Tests
Requires Data That Are At Least:

– Interval data – Distribution is normal – Involves statistical & hypothesis
testing

Inferential Technique

Nonparametric tests make fewer assumptions about the population from which the sample was selected = distribution-free tests. Advantage – safer to use if the assumptions necessary for parametric tests appear to have been violated.

Hypothesis Testing

 

Testing null hypothesis using different tests based on type of measurement scale and data. Making conclusion on the null hypothesis. Making decision on the alternative hypothesis.