1(800)900-2220

PSI Pump Systems Inc.

Variable Frequency Drives
Presented by PSI Pump Systems Inc.
Solutions Experts for Pumps & Water Treatmentµ
´Your

1(800)900-2220

PSI Pump Systems Inc.

The Purpose of VFD·s

1(800)900-2220

PSI Pump Systems Inc.

The Purpose
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Energy savings on most pump and fan applications. Better process control and regulation. Speeding up or slowing down a machine or process. Inherent power-factor correction Emergency bypass capability Protection from overload currents Safe Acceleration

1(800)900-2220

PSI Pump Systems Inc.

1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc. Effectively monitor the application or process. .Electric & Power Basics All VFD·s must: Run a machine or process at a desired speed. Produce adequate torque to handle the load.  Use power efficiently to produce the necessary torque at a given speed.

commonly referred to as the fundamental. 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc. .Electric & Power Basics The typical waveform consists of the frequency portion (time based) of the wave and the amplitude portion (the magnitude). This wave is actually in sine-wave form.

Electric & Power Basics Sinusoidal Waveform With Frequency & Amplitude Components 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc. .

.AC-Induction-Motor Theory 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc.

.AC Induction Motor Theory AC Induction Motor ² Squirrel Cage Design 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc.

1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc. .AC Induction Motor Theory Three-phase motor operation.

AC Induction Motor Theory How a motor shaft rotates  Torque is produced as the induction motor generates flux in its rotating field. This flux must remain constant to produce full-load torque.  1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc. .

. the slip increases and more flux lines cut the rotor windings. which increases the rotor magnetic field and consequently the rotor torque.AC Induction Motor Theory  As shaft torque load increases. 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc. which in turn increases rotor current.

% Synchronous Speed 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc.AC Induction Motor Theory Typical speed versus torque curve for a NEMA design B motor. .

this can result in voltage sags in the power system. for some applications the starting torque may be relatively low. only 1.5 times full load torque.0 to 2. 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc. between 3 to 8 times the full load current. Depending on the size of the motor.AC Induction Motor Issues  Starting Induction Motors The starting current is very high. particularly with materials handling equipment.   . In spite of the high starting current. The full torque is applied instantly at starting and the mechanical shock can eventually damage the drive system. such as conveyors.

Synchronous Speed = 120 x frequency # of motor poles 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc.AC Induction Motor Theory The speed of the rotating electric field within the induction motor. .

or (3) Change the frequency of the power supplied to the motor. This is the method of choice . this is done with varying resistors. this means separate windings. (2) Change the slip characteristics of the motor. . 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc. such as is done with a wound-rotor motor or by varying the stator voltage.AC Induction Motor Theory AC motor speed change can be accomplished in three ways: (1) Change the number of poles in the motor.

.Components of VFD·s  Power electronics is that field of electronics which covers the conversion of electrical energy from one form to another for high power applications. 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc.

Components of VFD·s    Vacuum tubes Thyristors (SCR·s) provided the standard method for rectifying AC. . Also referred to as a diode. 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc.

The general types of transistors are: » » » » The bipolar transistor. . The insulated gate-field-effect transistor (IGFET). » The insulated gate-bipolar transistor (IGBT). The gate turn off transistor (GTO) The field-effect transistor (FET).Components of VFD·s   Transistors provide fast switching capability for a relatively low cost. 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc.

VFD Basics A VFD in a block diagram. 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc. .

1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc. full-wave-diode bridge. . Sometimes the front end of the VFD.Components of VFD·s    All VFD·s need a power section that converts AC power into DC power. This is called the converter bridge. the converter is commonly a threephase.

. 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc.Components of VFD·s Rectifier is that special type of converter that converts AC to DC.

this distortion will show up in the output to the motor. Any ripple must be smoothed out before any transistor switches ´onµ. .VFD Basics  DC Bus The DC bus is the true link between the converter and inverter sections of the drive. The DC bus voltage and current can be viewed through the bus terminals. 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc. If not.

which assures steady voltage DC voltage levels prior to the inverter bridge and allows a path for over-voltage dissipation. .VFD Basics Simplified Circuit showing DC bus components: The DC link is an important section of the drive as it provides much of the monitoring and protection for the drive & motor circuit. It contains the basedrive fusing and pre-charge capacitor network. 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc.

1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc.VFD Basics Input Waveforms   The voltage that is not stepped down is rectified through the diodes. when viewed. The DC + and DC ² terminals will typically read approximately 325 volts DC on a 230 volts AC supplied drive and 650 volts DC on a 460 volts AC supplied drive. This waveform. and a DC bus voltage should be present.  . possibly with some rippling effect from the AC input. is straight DC.

1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc. .VFD Basics  Power-Module The inverter section is made up primarily of modules that are each made up of a transistor and diode in combination with each other which inverts the DC energy back to AC.

VFD Basics By switching the inverter-transistor devices on and off many times per half cycle. . a pseudosinusoidal current waveform is approximated. 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc.

VFD Basics Simplified Inverter Section of a VFD 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc. .

are pulsing the motor with some voltage. switches of the DC bus.VFD Basics  The DC waveform looks more like an AC waveform but the voltage waveform is much different. The power semi-conductors in the inverter section act as switches.  . 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc. and therefore.

VFD Basics A typical square wave takes its shape on the square-wave look due to this switching function ( which explains the sharp rise to peak) rather than a rotational. 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc. This frequency and amplitude pattern is sometimes called the carrier frequency of a PWM drive. . changing state of amplitude.

.VFD Basics Pulse-width-modulated voltage and current waveforms. 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc.

current-source of variablevoltage types.  . Inverters are classified as voltagesource. This has to do with the form of DC that the inverter receives from the DC bus.VFD Basics  The VFD changes the DC energy into three channels of AC energy that an AC induction motor can use to function properly. 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc.

. by their DC bus/inverter voltage or current source. by the type of power device used in their inverter section.VFD Basics Types of VFD·s  Solid-state AC VFD·s can be named for their use. or by their performance characteristics. by their waveform (PWM or PAM). 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc.

1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc.VFD Basics The main objective of the VFD is to vary the speed of the motor while providing the closest approximation to a sine wave for current (while pulsing DC voltage to the motor). .

VFD Basics Volts-perHertz Control The area within each pulse is the power delivered to the motor in voltmicroseconds. 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc. .

VFD Basics How VFD·s Operate The PWMs drive ability to maintain the AC levels through all types of load conditions at given speeds is the factor which separates one drive manufacturer from the other. . 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc.

1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc.VFD Basics Sample PWM-equivalent circuit with waveforms. .

a new.VFD Basics Advantages   Sometimes getting a little more speed out of the motor can increase the flow just enough to satisfy the demand. However. When there is capacity in the motor and the VFD can be programmed to do this.   . 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc. The VFD can run 10 to 20% higher in speed and make up for lost capacity in a flow-and-demand type of system. many motors ² as built ² are not balanced for these speeds. larger motor does not have to be purchased and installed.

VFD Basics Functions & Features       Set-up Parameters The Control Method Acceleration or Accel-Ramp Rate Automatic Restart Stopping Method Automatic Signals 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc. .

.VFD Basics Functions & Features      Jump. Speed Search or Pick-Up a Spinning Load 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc. Skip or Critical Frequencies Fault Logs and On-Board Diagnostics Power Loss Ride Through Slip Compensation Catch a Rotating Motor.

.VFD Basics Conclusion       Significant energy savings Easy setup & programming Retrofits Space Better design Competitive edge 1(800)900-2220 PSI Pump Systems Inc.