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y Temperature dependence of resistivity in

superconductor y Meissner effect y Type 1 superconductor y Type 2 superconductor

y Temperature dependence of critical field y BCS theory y High temperature superconductor y Characteristics of superconductor in superconducting

state y Application of superconductor

y Basic principle of sound y Generation of ultrasonic y Piezoelectric effect y Detection of ultrasonic y Application of ultrasonic

cm for superconductor. y Resistivity: Vs ~ 4x10-23 . y Resistivity: Vm ~ 1x10-13 . . cm for nonsuperconductor metal.What's a superconductor? y Linear reduction in resistivity as temperature is decreased: V = Vo (1 + E(T-To)) where V: resistivity and E: the linear temperature coefficient of resistivity.

y As the temperature drops below the critical point. near absolute zero. y Most materials will only superconduct.Tc. at very low temperatures. the material may have conventional metallic conductivity or may even be an insulator. . y Above the critical temperature. resistivity rapidly drops to zero and current can flow freely without any resistance.cont.

y When a magnetic field is applied current flows in the outer skin of the material leading to an induced magnetic field that exactly opposes the applied field. y In the Meissner effect experiment. y The material is strongly diamagnetic as a result. y This means that an electrical current in a superconducting ring continues indefinitely until a force is applied to oppose the current.Cont. a magnet floats above the surface of the superconductor . Zero electrical resistivity. 2). Superconductors have two outstanding features: 1). The magnetic field inside a bulk sample is zero (the Meissner effect).

resistance in metal y Metallic R vs T y e-p scattering (lattice interactions) at high temperature y Impurities at low temperatures R Electrical resistance Lattice (phonon) interactions Residual Resistance (impurities) R0 TD/3 Temperature .Temperature vs.

resistance in superconductor y Superconducting R vs T R R0 ´Transition temperatureµ Tc Temperature .Temperature vs.

Cont. onnes in 1911 in mercury y The resistivity of mercury vanish completely below 4. y Superconductivity is the state of zero resistivity y It was first observed by K.2k .

Cont. of the order of 0. y The transition from normal conducting occurring over a very narrow range of temp.05k y It is called transition width y Temperature below which resistivity is zero is called transition temperature .

it actively excludes magnetic fields from its interior.Meissner Effect y When a material makes the transition from the normal to superconducting state. current loops would be generated to exactly cancel the imposed field (Lenz s Law). y Zero resistance would imply that if we tried to magnetize a superconductor. . this is called the Meissner effect. y This constraint to zero magnetic field inside a superconductor is distinct from the perfect diamagnetism which would arise from its zero electrical resistance.

Superconductor Bext Bint = 0 .

B = µ (H+M) = µ (1+ )H Where = M/H Where H = applied magnetic field M = magnetization = magnetic susceptibility Since B = 0 in superconducting state As .Cont.

It leads to a leviation effect .H SO. =-1 And also. M = .Cont.1 hence µ = 0 i. a superconductor exhibits perfect diamagnetism.e. = µ . So.superconductor material strongly repel external magnets. Because of diamagnetic nature.

y If a small magnet is brought near a superconductor.Magnetic Levitation y Magnetic fields are actively excluded from superconductors (Meissner effect). it will be repelled becaused induced supercurrents will produce mirror images of each pole. . y If a small permanent magnet is placed above a superconductor. it can be levitated by this repulsive force.


.Types I Superconductors y There are 30 pure metals which exhibit zero resistivity at low temperature. y They are called Type I superconductors (Soft Superconductors). y The superconductivity exists only below their critical temperature and below a critical magnetic field strength.

39 0.38 6. Be Rh W Ir Lu Hf Ru Os Mo Zr Cd U Ti Zn Ga Tc (K) 0 0 0.4 2.1 0. Gd* Al Pa Th Re Tl In Sn Hg Ta V La Pb Tc Nb Tc (K) 1.77 9.85 1.1 0.4 1.2 1.1 0.015 0.153 4.193 7.722 4.47 5.2 0.4 1.1 1.00 7.92 0.Type I Superconductors Mat.46 .7 0.39 3.546 0.408 3.56 0.083 Mat.5 0.

Type 1 superconductor .

y Type 1 exhibits complete meissner effect y Critical field is very low typically 0.Cont.1 tesla or less y High magnetic field cannot be produced this way .

they are called Type II superconductors (Hard Superconductors). y They were found to have much higher critical fields and therefore could carry much higher current densities while remaining in the superconducting state.Types II Superconductors y Starting in 1930 with lead-bismuth alloys. . were found which exhibited superconductivity.

Type II Superconductors .

Type 2 superconductor .

y Type 2 are also known as hard.or high field y y y y superconductors This type of superconductor can exist in a mixed state Type 2 partially admit magnetic flux Type 2 contains two critical field A material can change from type1 to type2 on the substitution of some impurity .Cont.

the higher Bc. that destroys the superconducting effect obeys a parabolic law of the form: « ¨ T ¸2 » Bc ! Bo ¬1  © ¹ ¼ ©T ¹ ¬ ª cº ¼ ­ ½ where Bo = constant. the higher Tc. . Bc.The Critical Field y The critical field. Tc = critical temperature. y In general. T = temperature.

y This pairing results from a slight attraction between the electrons related to lattice vibrations.y The properties of type I superconductors were modeled by the efforts of John Bardeen. and Robert Schrieffer in what is commonly called the BCS theory. the coupling to the lattice is called a phonon interaction. Leon Cooper. y A key conceptual element in this theory is the pairing of electrons close to the Fermi level into Cooper pairs through interaction with the crystal lattice. BCS Theory of Superconductivity .

001 eV which inhibits the kind of collision interactions which lead to ordinary resistivity.BCS Theory of Superconductivity y The electron pairs have a slightly lower energy and leave an energy gap above them on the order of . Cooper. . and Schrieffer received the Nobel Prize in 1972 for the development of the theory of superconductivity. y Bardeen. the material exhibits zero resistivity. y For temperatures such that the thermal energy is less than the band gap.

saving a great deal of cost as compared to previously known superconductor alloys. y However. HTS ceramics are working at 77 K. as has been noted in a Nobel Prize publication of Bednortz and Muller.High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) Ceramics y Discovered in 1986. . these HTS ceramics have two technological disadvantages: y they are brittle and y they degrade under common environmental influences.

.HTS CERAMICS y HTS materials the most popular is orthorhombic YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) ceramics. y Nonoxide/intermetallic solid powders including MgB2 or CaCuO2 or other ceramics while these ceramics still have significant disadvantages as compared to YBCO raw material.

y Becomes superconducting at 92K. y Famous as the first material that becomes superconducting at a temperature above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77K). .YBa 2Cu 3O7 y Discovered by Paul Chu et al. at the University of Houston in 1987.

33 K3C60 Cs3C60 Ba0.3 40 (15 kbar applied pressure) 30 40 22 90 125 133 .l5CuO4 YBa2Cu3O7 Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10 HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+d Tc (K) 12.85Ce0.85Sr0.1 19.6K0.4BiO3 Lal.Table I: Transition temperatures in inorganic superconductors Compound PbMo6S8 SnSe2(Co(C5H5)2)0.6 6.l5CuO4 Ndl.

Characteristics of superconductor in superconducting state y The magnetic properties undergo change in the same way as electrical properties y The specific heat changes discontinuously at the transition temperature y Thermoelectric effect disappear in superconducting state y Entropy is reduced in the superconducting state .


ENTROPY y In all superconductor the entropy decrease markedly y Superconductor state is more ordered than normal state .

HEAT CAPACITY y In normal metals specific heat varies as the absolute temperature without discontinuity y Heat capacity is discontinuous for superconductor y It shows the presence of energy gap in superconductor .

ENERGY GAP y Energy gap exist in superconducting state y Energy gap determines the thermal properties of superconductor y Energy gap decrease continuously to zero as temperature reach the transition temperature .

the super electrons possibly playing no part in heat transfer .THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY y The thermal conductivity of superconductor undergoes a continuous change between the two phases and is usually lower in the superconducting phase suggesting that the electronic contribution drops.

which is much larger than the field obtainable from an electromagnet.used in medicine .These materials are used for producing very strong magnetic field of about 50 Tesla. in MRI(magnetic resonance imaging) devices.APPLICATION OF SUPERCONDUCTOR (1).High current densities with zero resistance properties og superconducting materials make useful for strong electromagnets for example. (2).

In superconducting materials.These are also used in high speed leviated trains. . (6). heating loss is zero.these materials can be used to perform logic and storage functions in computers.Cont. (5). (3).Type 2 superconducting materials are mainly utilized for superconducting solenoids.therefore power can be transmitted through superconducting cable without loss (4).

.superconducting Y-Ba-Cu-o is used in antenna applications.Cont.These materials are also used in RF and microwave filters (e.g. (9). (8).Recently superconductors have found application in switching elements called cryotrons. for mobile phone base stations). (7).

the motion of the superconducting magnet on the train induces a current in these coils. In addition. The wire in these coils is not a superconductor. The electromagnets on the train and outside produce forces that levitate the train and keep it centered above the track.APPLICATIONS: Superconducting Magnetic Levitation The track are walls with a continuous series of vertical coils of wire mounted inside. As the train passes each coil. a wave of electric current sweeps down these outside coils and propels the train forward. making them electromagnets. The Yamanashi MLX01MagLev Train .

cooling the HTS wire to the zero resistance state. Superconducting Transmission Cable From American Superconductor .APPLICATIONS: Power The cable configuration features a conductor made from HTS wires wound around a flexible hollow core. The efficiency of this design reduces losses. Liquid nitrogen flows through the core. The conductor is surrounded by conventional dielectric insulation.

The superconducting magnet coils produce a large and uniform magnetic field inside the patient's body. .APPLICATIONS: Medical MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scans produce detailed images of soft tissues.

Basic Principles of Sound y Sound is produced by a vibrating body and travels in the form of a wave. y The pitch of the sound is determined by the frequency of the wave (vibrations or cycles completed in a certain period of time). y Ultrasound is sound with a pitch too high to be detected by the human ear. y Sound waves travel through materials by vibrating the particles that make up the material. .

Examples of oscillation ball on a spring pendulum rotating earth .

Frequency Time From the duration of one oscillation T the frequency f (number of oscillations per second) is calculated: One full oscillation T .

Equation of progressive Wave Function wave: y ! A sin([t  kx) Amplitude: A Wavelength: P Frequency/Time period: f=1/T Velocity U: U=fP=P/T Energy: E ! 2T 2 mf 2 A2 Intensity: I ! 2T 2 V f 2 A2 .

y The sound wavelength is inversely proportional to its frequency. ( = 1/f) y Several wave modes of vibration are used in ultrasonic inspection. y The time is takes a sound wave to travel a distance of one complete wavelength is the same amount of time it takes the source to execute one complete vibration. shear. and Rayleigh (surface) waves.) y The measurement of sound waves from crest to crest determines its wavelength ( ).Basic Principles of Sound (cont. The most common are longitudinal. .

20 20 .Spectrum of sound Frequency range Hz Description Example 0 .000 Infrasound Audible sound Ultrasound Earth quake Speech. Quartz crystal .20.000 > 20. music Bat.

which have a frequency above 20KHz. Frequency range: 20KHz-10MHz Applications: y Non-destructive detection (NDE) y Medical diagnosis y Material characterization y Range finding . liquids. and gases.Ultrasonics Definition: the science and exploitation of elastic waves in solids.

y In solid materials. and focused. the vibrational energy can be split into different wave modes when the wave encounters an interface at an angle other than 90 degrees. y The velocity of sound in a given material is constant and can only be altered by a change in the mode of energy. refracted. . y Reflection and refraction occurs when sound waves interact with interfaces of differing acoustic properties. y Ultrasonic reflections from the presence of discontinuities or geometric features enables detection and location.Properties of ultrasonic waves y Ultrasonic waves are very similar to light waves in that they can be reflected.

Production of ultrasonic y Ultrasonic waves are generated mainly by three method (1)-mechanical method (2)-piezoelectric method (3)-magnetostrictive effect .

the wavelengths can be obtained as. the wavelength of the sound is 4 times the length of the column inside the barrel.Mechanical method y This is one of the earlist methods for producing frequency upto 100kHz with the help of galton s whistle y Since the whistle acts like a organ pipe . After making end correction for the opening . The millimeter scale on the barrel gives the distance from the closed end of the column to the air-jet opening. .

wavelength( ) = 4*(L+x) or frequency = U/4(L+x) where U is the velocity of air . L and x are respectively the vibrating length of the air column and the end correction . respectively .Cont.

The frequency of the wave depends on the applied voltage. a thin conducting film of thickness nearly 50µm is placed in front of a fixed electrode seperated by a dielectric film. When a voltage is impressed between the electrode and the surface of the object it produces an attractive force in the two surfaces given by . An alternating voltage is applied to the metallic plates .ELECTROSTATIC METHOD In this method . Mechanical forces at the surface generates ultrasonic waves.

S/2d where . V is voltage F = -V² is dielectric constant of air or the material between electrodes is permittivity of vacuum S is surface area the distance between electrodes .

If a d. . voltage and an alternating voltage are applied simultaneously.A major advantages of this is its broadband capabilities. or electrostatic method.c. it is possible to generate ultrasonic wave in the test object at the frequency of the alternating voltage.Cont. the capacitive .has been used in dry contact applications by using mylar or other types of plastic films as dielectric materials between the surface of the test object and the electrodes.

Piezoelectric effect y It was discovered by J.ROCHILLE SALT etc. Of crystal like QUARTZ. Curie y This effect is best observed in a no. TOURMALINE. . And P.

Quartz Crystals y Highly anisotropic y X-cut: vibration in the direction perpendicular to the cutting direction y Y-cut: vibration in the transverse direction .

when subjected to a electric voltage input. electric charge is generated on its surface.What is Piezoelectricity? y Piezoelectricity means pressure electricity . y Piezoelectric Effect y when a piezoelectric material is squeezed or stretched. Conversely. a piezoelectric material mechanically deforms. y Inverse Piezoelectric Effect y . which is used to describe the coupling between a material s mechanical and electrical behaviors.

Piezoelectric Effect + Battery Piezoelectrical Crystal (Quartz) .

due to a distortion of the crystal lattice .Piezoelectric Effect + The crystal gets thicker.

Piezoelectric Effect + The effect inverses with polarity change .

m. And the tuning is achieved by a variable condenser y When frequency of valve circuit is equal to the frequency of crystal resonance will occur and the crystal will undergo linear expansion and contractions i. the crystal is set into mechanical vibrations ..f.Ultrasonic generation by piezoelctric y It was found by Langevin in 1917 y He used an electric oscillatory circuit to provide e.e.

Cont.000Hz can be produced y To get higher frequencies the plate has to be very thin and strong enough to stand the strain . y This arrangement is similar to an electrically maintained vibrator emitting sound waves of definite frequencies y With a moderate size quartz crystal ultrasonic of frequencies 540.

Piezoelectric Effect Sound wave with frequency f U(f) An alternating voltage generates crystal oscillations at the frequency f .

Piezoelectric Effect Short pulse ( < 1 µs ) A short voltage pulse generates an oscillation at the crystal s resonant frequency f0 .

Electrical energy Piezoelectrical crystal Ultrasonic wave .Reception of ultrasonic waves A sound wave hitting a piezoelectric crystal. induces crystal vibration which then causes electrical voltages at the crystal surfaces.

y The amount of reflected or transmitted energy can be detected and provides information about the size of the reflector. y At surface interfaces some of the wave energy is reflected and some is transmitted. y The travel time of the sound can be measured and this provides information on the distance that the sound has traveled. .Principles of Ultrasonic Inspection where y Ultrasonic waves are introduced into a material they travel in a straight line and at a constant speed until they encounter a surface.

Detection of ultrasonic (1)-Kundt s tube method: Kundt s tube can be used to detect ultrasonic in the same way as it is used to detection of ordinary sound waves (2)Sensitive flame: this method is used to detect the ultrasonic since very high frequencies sound will change the intensity of the flame .

(3)-Thermal detectors: if a probe of fine platinum wire is placed in the region of ultrasonic we get compression and rarefactions very rapidly at nodes and it causes adiabatic changes, so the platinum probe is alternately heated and cooled in the change of resistance which may be detected by suitable experiment

(4)-Piezoelectric detector: if a pair of faces of a piezoelectric crystal like quartz is subjected to waves opposite charges develop on the other pair normal to the first.The change are amplified by an amplifier and then detected by suitable means

Ultrasonic application




Application of ultrasonic
Velocity in gases and liquids: y To find the velocity of sound in gases and liquids stationary wave method is applied y The velocity of ultrasonic in the medium can be calculated from the relation V=n y This method is suitable for finding the velocity of sound in gases and liquid which are available in small quantities

Bats navigate using ultrasound .

ultrasound echoes off objects y The bat hears the echoes and works out what caused them ‡ Dolphins also navigate with ultrasound ‡ Submarines use a similar method called sonar ‡ We can also use ultrasound to look inside the body« .Bats: Navigating with ultrasound y Bats make high-pitched chirps which are too high for humans to hear. This is called ultrasound y Like normal sound.

so the distance to the object is 1. how far away is the object? y Clue 1: the speed of sound in air is 330 ms-1 y Clue 2: The speed of sound equals the distance travelled divided by the time taken y Answer: distance = speed x time y Put the numbers in: distance = 330 x 0.3 m y But this is the distance from the bat to the object and back again.65 m.01 = 3.Bats: Navigating with ultrasound y If a bat hears an echo 0.01 second after it makes a chirp. .

y Emit ultrasound and detect echoes y Map out boundary of object .Ultrasound imaging: How does it work? y An ultrasound element acts like a bat.

Ultrasound imaging: How does it work? y Now put many elements together to make a probe and create an image .