Composite Materials Performance MHK221188

THERMAL EFFECTS IN BUILDINGS

Introduction
‡ The Basics ‡ transfer; gases and vapours ‡ Thermal Effects ‡ Thermal insulation; insulation values; thermal bridging;

structural temperatures

Essential reading 
Environmental Science in Building,

(6thedition) 
Randall McMullan, Palgrave

MacMillan

Nature of Heat 
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡  ‡ ‡ ‡

THERMAL ENERGY Heat is form of energy ie thermal energy SI unit of heat is the Joule (J) Others sometimes used; Calorie; kilowatt hour; and BTU Other forms of energy also measured in Joules POWER Rate at which energy is converted from one form to another P= H / t where H is Heat energy and t is time SI unit of power is the Watt (W) (1 watt = 1 J/sec.)

heat will tend to flow from the hot building to the cooler outside air (in winter) and visa versa in summer ‡ SI unit of temperature is the Kelvin (K) ‡ 0°C = 273K 100°C = 373K . ‡ Think of a heated building. when no heat transfer between the two objects they are at the same temperature.Nature of Heat  TEMPERATURE ‡ Simply. heat flows from objects at high temperature to those at low temperature ‡ By definition.

Nature of Heat  HEAT CAPACITY ‡ Ability to hold heat ‡ Do not confuse with Thermal Conductivity ‡ Specific Heat Capacity = Quantity of heat required to raise 1kg of the material by 1K (or 1°C) (Measured in J/kg K) ‡ Water 4190 J/kg K ‡ Concrete 3300 J/kg K ‡ Copper 390 J/kg K ‡ So water is a very good medium for storing heat ‡ Water around British Isles retains heat and creates a temperate climate .

which then emit heat during the day.Nature of heat  DENSITY ‡ Relates the mass of an object to its volume ‡ Density ( ) = mass (m) / volume (v) ‡ Masonry ± high density (small volume has large mass) therefore high heat capacity within small volume ‡ Electric storage heater uses cheap electricity to heat bricks up. concrete and stone very relevant to thermal behaviour of buildings . ‡ Heat storage capacity of brick.

gas Material absorbs heat to change from solid to liquid then to gas Material releases heat when change form gas to liquid then solid SENSIBLE AND LATENT HEAT Sensible heat ± heat energy absorbed or released during a change in temperature Latent heat ± ditto during change of state Enthalpy ± steam @ 373K > energy than water at 373K . liquid.Nature of Heat  ‡ ‡ ‡  ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ CHANGE OF STATE Solid.

Heat transfer ‡ Heat will transfer between bodies until they reach an equilibrium ‡ ‡ ‡ CONDUCTION. RADIATION . CONVECTION.

then heat moves to other parts Metals best conductors (high in free electrons) Poor conductors include liquids and gasses. so porous materials with high air content.Heat transfer  CONDUCTION ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Transfer of heat energy through a material without the molecules changing their positions Heat transferred as molecules in one part heated. good insulators in buildings .

³r´ measured in mK/W .e. Relates to:Coefficient of thermal conductivity .Heat Transfer  ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Measurement of thermal conductivity Conduction can be measured Thermal Conductivity ± measure of rate at which heat is conducted.Usually ³k´ or ³ ´ Measured in W/mK ± i. of 1K (1° C) and a surface area of 1m² Resistivity (r)± reciprocal of ³k-value´ ie r = 1/k or 1/ Because reciprocal. the coefficient of thermal conductivity is heat flow in Watts across 1m thickness of material for temp diff.

Heat Transfer  ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ CONVECTION Transfer of heat energy through a material by the bodily movement of particles Will only happen in fluids (i. Will not happen in solids Convection occurs when the fluid e. liquids and gasses). so cooler fluid displaces the warmer air causing the latter to rise New air then also heated and process repeated Gives rise to a ³convection current´ Convection currents in a room Air is poor conductor but whole room can be heated by a single heater.g. It then expands Heated (expanded) air is less dense. air. is heated. using Convection as the mode of heat transfer .e.

so how is the Earth warmed by the sun? Radiation . convection and conduction are not possible.Defined as the transfer of heat energy by electromagnetic waves Simple rules Dull black surfaces have the highest absorption and emission of radiant heat Shiny silver surfaces have the lowest absorption and emission of radiant heat .Heat Transfer  ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ RADIATION In ³outer space´.

causing internal temp. to rise Planet Earth behaves in the same way. Increase in GH gasses eg C0 Implies greater level of re-radiated heat is retained Contribution to ³global warming´ . heat absorbed by plants which then re-radiate heat Re-radiated heat is of longer wavelength.Heat transfer  ‡ ‡ THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Sun emits short wavelength radiation It passes through atmosphere and glass ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Inside Greenhouse. which don¶t easily penetrate glass Re-radiated heat is therefore trapped.

Thermal Effects  ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ LEARNING Need for building insulation Types of materials used Calculate R-values and U-values Compare types used in different parts Assess the building for insulation quality Building codes related to insulation Assess bldg elements for relative insulation values Cause and effect of thermal bridging Temp profiles and prediction of condensation Why different structures respond to temperature changes at different rates ? .

‡ pattern staining. ‡ combining U-values STRUCTURAL TEMPERATURES ± ‡ response times. ‡ thermal conductivity. ‡ elemental U-values. ‡ u-value adjustment THERMAL BRIDGING ± ‡ Bridge effects. ‡ insulators.value). ‡ temperature gradients ‡ ‡ ‡ . INSULATION VALUES ‡ thermal transmittance (U-value). ‡ thermal resistance (R.Thermal Effects  ‡ CONTENTS THERMAL INSULATION ± ‡ materials.

Thermal insulation  ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ General Retain heat inside for as long as possible Conserves energy & reduces costs Less energy use implies less CO (and other) Implies reduced global warming Good insulation will achieve this Will also reduce heating effect in the summer Consider a tent ± no insulation: hot in summer & very cold in winter Large buildings sometimes more costly to cool than heat .

g. when unoccupied during the day .Thermal insulation  ‡ ‡ ‡ General (contd) Condensation is a significant problem in poorly insulated properties particularly where surface temperatures are low Good thermal insulation will keep internal surface temperatures above the dewpoint and therefore reduce the condensation effect Well placed insulation reduces time for a room to heat up e.

g. mineral wool.Thermal Insulation  ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ INSULATING MATERIALS DESIGN ± to oppose transfer of heat between areas at different temperatures Vacuum is perfect insulator against conduction ± not practical. so consider gasses Atoms spaced well apart and low densities ± almost as good ³Air´ is the active ingredient used in many insulation materials E. (Air is trapped within min. wool) . aerated concrete Cannot use air alone since no strength and moving air would also carry heat through convection.

Condensation of water vapour poor ventilation of rooms/thermal bridges .

very little conductive effect .Thermal insulation  MATERIALS (contd) ‡ To restrict radiant heat.g. Aluminium foil ‡ But Aluminium is a very good conductor! ‡ However foil is so thin. use surfaces that do not absorb or emit radiant heat ‡ Which are?? ‡ Shiny surfaces that reflect electromagnetic waves ‡ E.

aerated concrete blocks e. mineral wool quilts e.g. aluminium foil .g. foamed polyurethane e.g.g.Thermal Insulation TYPES OF THERMAL INSULATOR ‡Rigid preformed materials ‡Flexible materials ‡Loose fill materials ‡Materials formed on-site ‡Reflective materials e. expanded polystyrene granules e.g.

Thermal Insulation  PROPERTIES ‡ Good insulator ‡ Suitable strength ‡ Moisture resistance ‡ Fire resistance ‡ Pest and fungi resistance ‡ Harmless to humans and environment ‡ Compatible with adjacent materials .

as shown in ³Table 2.1´ . degeneration of the material. moisture content. thickness. we will assume a set density for a particular material. but for our purposes.Thermal Insulation  THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY  ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡  Remember: thermal conductivity (rate of conduction of heat) k or Units: W/mK Values of k can vary ± due to differences in density.

Thermal Insulation .

Thermal Insulation .

g. the U-value of walls < 0.25 W/m²K . floors and roofs in their composite form e.Thermal Insulation   ‡ ‡  RESISTIVITY Remember: Reciprocal of conductivity (an alternative measurement for conduction) r = 1/k NB: not to be confused with Resistance (R) ± see later slides  ‡ ‡ ‡ THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE ± (U-VALUE) U-value is usually the performance value defined in the Building Codes (Building Regulations) Applied to walls.

Insulation values .

It reflects no light at normal temperatures and thus appears black. which absorbs radiation of all wavelengths falling on it.Emissivity and Absorption ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Ability of a material to give off or absorb radiant heat Relates to the surface of the material Rough black absorbs and emits most heat Shiny silver absorbs and emits least heat All materials compared with a ³black body´ A "black body" is a theoretical perfect absorber. like ideal gas in kinetic theory. However. it is a theoretical model and we may find in reality only "Almost perfect black bodies". ‡ ‡ EMISSIVITY ± fraction of energy radiated by a body compared to that radiated by a black body at the same temperature ABSORPTIVITY ± fraction of radiant energy absorbed by a body compared with that absorbed by a black body etc .

colour has an important effect on heat absorbed by the building via the high temp. radiation from the sun.2 Dark bricks ± Emissivity 0. rejects max. radiation) Low ± E Glass Transmits maximum light.Emissivity and Absorption  ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Examples: Aluminium ± Emissivity 0. Colour has little effect on the heat emitted from buildings (low temp.6 Generally. Solar energy.05 ± Absorption 0. room temp energy back into the room . and reflects max.9 ± Absorption 0.

also heat transfer via convection and radiation Also have to account for ³surfaces´. ‡ . because radiation and convection will be affected by surface colour and exposure to weather Combination of all these factors provides us with the overall thermal transmittance or U-value The higher the U-value the more heat flows through so a good U-value is a low one as you want to keep heat inside the building or outside depending on the climate you live in.Insulation Values  ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE ± U VALUE Different materials conduct heat at different rates In a cavity.

cost of replacement heat will be half!! The technical explanation of the U-value The U-value physically describes how much thermal energy in Watts [W] is transported through a building component with the size of 1 square meter [m²] at a temperature difference of 1 Kelvin [K] (=1ºC).6 W/m²K ‡ Also.3 W/m²K loses heat at half the rate of a wall with U-value of 0. through a particular section of construction ‡ Unit: W/m²K ‡ U ± values have a linear relationship with heat loss ‡ ie wall with U-value 0. by all mechanisms under standard conditions. .Insulation Values ‡ U-Value is a measure of the overall rate of heat transfer.

Elemental U-values ‡ ‡ Insulation properties will vary.3) ‡ ‡ . depends on moisture content U-values calculated assuming standard values for mc and rates of heat transfer at surfaces and in cavities see slide on ³Standard thermal resistances´ Building Regulations and Scottish Codes use U-values as targets and limits for thermal insulation and energy use U-value ³standard´ values common basis for comparison (see table 2.

Elemental U-values .

Elemental U-values Note: Values indicative only ± manufacturer¶s details must be consulted for accurate assessment .

g.Thermal Resistance (R) ‡ U-values calculated from the R-values of the various parts that make up an element e. a wall ‡ Thermal resistance (R) is a measure of the ³opposition´ to heat transfer by a component in say a wall ‡ Unit: m²K / W ‡ Three types of thermal resistance ‡ Material resistance ‡ Surface resistance ‡ Airspace resistance .

R Thermal Resistance.Thermal Resistances. we can obtain the thermal resistance of the layer from d R! k where d = thickness of material (m) k = thermal conductivity of material (W/mK) R = thermal resistance (m2 K/W) . Thermal resistance of homogeneous layers Design thermal values can be given as either design thermal conductivity or design thermal resistance. R [m2K/W] A measure of the opposition to heat transfer offered by a particular component in a building element. If thermal conductivity is given.

R= r x d ‡ Where r is the resistivity (as opposed to Resistance) ‡ Remember. the reciprocal of the conductivity value ‡ (When calculating U-values. we are usually told the k value i. Thermal Conductivity) . r = 1 / k ‡ i.e.Thermal Resistance MATERIAL RESISTANCES ‡ Resistance R depends on the thermal conductivity (k) and its thickness (d) ‡ R = d/k ‡ Also.e.

Thermal Resistance SURFACE RESISTANCES  Have to be factored into the U-value calculations as well ‡ Usually given as a set of standard values (see table 2.4 below) AIRSPACE RESISTANCES  Ditto ‡ And ditto .

Thermal Resistance .

RT or series R ‡ Analogy ± Total Resistance is similar to adding electrical resistance in .Thermal Resistance  Total Thermal Resistance ‡ Calculate individual resistance of various components ‡ Add them together ‡ Get Total Thermal resistance .

Thermal Resistance Once we have RT (or R). only a simple step away from establishing the U-Value !!!!!! .

plaster resistance. all forming a solid brick wall) . air space resistances. brick resistance.Calculation of U-values  U-value is the reciprocal of Total Thermal Resistance ie ‡ U=1/  Where ‡ U = U-value (W / m² K) ‡ R R = sum of thermal resistances of all components in the element (eg surface resistances.

..R2 .thermal resistance of airspace (m2 °C/W) .thermal resistance of structural elements (m2 °C/W) Ra .thermal transmittance of overall structure ( W/m2 °C) Rsi.Rso .. + R a + R so Where: U .Insulation Values ± U-values U= 1 R si + R1 + R 2 + .inside and outside thermal resistances (m2 °C/W) R1..

Calculation of U-values .

perhaps 1.3 W/m² K ‡ Calculation process is simply the reverse of what we have done already .6 W/m² K ‡ What if we wanted to thermally upgrade the wall? ‡ What insulation would be needed to upgrade the U-value to a target of say 0.Calculation of U-values  Adjustments to U-values ‡ Typically we might have a 1930s as built cavity wall ‡ We can calculate its existing U-value as described already.

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