Early Computers

Evolution of Operating Systems
No Operating Systems y Monitors y Simple Batch Systems y Multiprogrammed Batch Systems. y Time Sharing Systems

y Job Scheduling was done with the help of clipboard. y . y One Person used the computer at a time. y Library of commonly used procedures were the first start of OS.No Operating Systems Each Program directly interfaced with the hardware.

change memory content y .EARLY SYSTEMS Single user. examine register. programmer and operator y Manual loading from front panel control y Do whatever you want : halt program.

Problems : y Difficult to use y Gross waste of computing power. block time booking y Job set up time Development needed : y Device driver. high level languages . compiler.

SIMPLE MONITOR Avoid expensive CPU idle most of the time. get high utilization rate y Professional operator y Batching of jobs y .

Program errors/job failure : y operator takes memory/registers dump and start next job y waste of CPU time during the transition from one job to the next Development needed : y Automatic job sequencing y Resident Monitor y Evolution of control cards (JCL): To distinguish between jobs. and between data and program y Batch systems .

Memory layout for a resident monitor .

y . y When a job completed.Simple Batch Systems User Submitted Job (written on punched cards) to the computer. y The OS would copy the input data to o disk. When the program terminated. the OS would select one of the jobs from the disk and run it. y Printed output from the job was written to the disk. the output file was copied to printer.

of jobs y .UNIUNI. the computer will read in another job and print the third job y overlap I/O for a no.PROGRAMMING (Single Program Execution) Offline operation to compensate difference between CPU and I/O device speed y SPOOLING (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-line) y use disk as buffer y while computing one job.


y . of programs with CPU switching from one another y Several programs had to be kept in RAM at the same time. each protected from the other. y The OS had to be able to switch user environment to another. y Relied on hardware that support I/O interrupts and DMA.Multi Programming Ability to load a no.

y concurrency control y memory management policies y process scheduling .Requires: y protection for different users (memory & files).


Scheduling Key to multi-programming y Long term y Medium term y Short term y I/O y .

a job becomes a process for the short term scheduler (or it becomes a swapped out job for the medium term scheduler) y .e. controls the degree of multi-programming Once submitted.Long Term Scheduling y Determines which programs are submitted for processing i.

Medium Term Scheduling Part of the swapping function y Usually based on the need to manage multi-programming y If no virtual memory. memory management is also an issue y .

An interrupt occurs when time expires y y Privileged instructions Executed only by the monitor Interrupts Provides flexibility for controlling user programs .Desirable Hardware Features y Memory Protection Do not allow the memory area containing the monitor to be altered. y Timer Prevents a job from monopolizing the system.

y Multiple users simultaneously access the system through terminals y A new control language was required for interactive work. y . y Processor·s time is shared among multiple users.TIME SHARING Using multiprogramming to handle multiple interactive jobs.

etc. y . control continuous processes.REALREAL-TIME SYSTEM Characterized by processing activity triggered by external events y The processing of each task must be completed within a rigid time constraints y Responsiveness to the environment is more important than the utilization of resources y Usually used to monitor production lines.

DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS Loosely coupled system y separate memory . OS connected via communication link or bus y Total transparency to user y Jobs can be performed in different systems determined by the system y File locations are determined by the system y .

: y better price/performance than mainframes y if one machine crashes.Adv. : y little commercial software exists as present y network may cause problems y easy access and subjected to secure threats & attack . the system as a whole can still survive y computing power can be added in small increments Disadv.

Multi Processing Systems with more than one processor require : y interprocessor communication y more complicated process scheduling y parallel processing synchronization Tightly coupled system y sharing the computer bus. . the clock.S. memory and peripherals y single O.

S. backup & standby.Clusters y multiple O. Massive Parallel (MPP) Systems y large no. load sharing . of processors y super computers y transputers y Used for fault tolerant.

) . The OS moved jobs between the fast and the slow RAMS y y (Pakaya hai«.Memory Organization Early computers did not have cache or Virtual Memory. Cache has little impact on the OS. y Some early machines had two types of RAM.

Virtual Memory The IBM/370 introduced Virtual memory. y . y Intel 386 provided virtual memory support y The OS has to move pages between RAM and disk y The OS has to maintain the page tables and addressing environment.

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT PAST MAINFRAME 1950 ‡No software ‡Compilers ‡Resident Monitors ‡Batch 1960 ‡Time.sharing ‡Multi-user ‡(Multics. OS/360) 1970 ‡Multi. DOS) ‡Networking ‡Mulit-tasking ‡Distributed ‡Multi-user ‡(Workstations) .processing MINI MICRO 1980 ‡Networking 1990 ‡Distributed Systems ‡No software ‡Compilers ‡Resident Monitors ‡Time-sharing ‡No software ‡Multi-user (Unix) ‡Compilers ‡Resident Monitors ‡Single User ‡(CP/M.

FUTURE Fully Distributed Systems y Embedded Systems y Massive Parallel Processors. National Grip Systems y (KUCH BHI DAAL««) .

Windows and UNIX«AAge UNIX«AAge .

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