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Standards of Interlocking

As per old manual (of 1955)


Standards of Interlocking
• Old SEM (para 170 for 2 aspect & para 174
for multiple aspect) lays down the
following Standards of Signalling and
interlocking:
– Standard I Permits speeds upto 50 kmph
– Standard II Permits speeds upto 75 kmph
– Standard III Permits unrestricted speed

for run through trains


Standard I
• SEM para 171 lays down the requirements for Std I
for 2 aspect Signalling.
– (a) Isolation: Not compulsory.
– (b) Signals : Outer and Bracketted Home
Starter is optional
Warner only on MG, if trains run through.
All signals to be operated from a Lever frame under
SM’s control.
– (c) Points : As per para 142
– (d) Interlocking: (i) Between facing points and signals by key locks
shall be so arranged that a signal cannot be taken off
unless the facing points are correctly set and locked.
Standard I (contd.)
(d) Interlocking (cotd.) :
(ii) If warner is provided, interlocking between warner and points
must extend to trailing points.
(iii) If points keys are electrically transmitted, insulation standard
shall be same as for Block wires.
(iv) Interlocking between points and signals must ensure that no
signal can be taken off for a line fitted with trap points unless the
trap point has been closed.
Standard II
• SEM para 172 lays down the requirements of
interlocking for Std II for 2 aspect signalling.
– (a) Isolation : Main line must be isolated.
– (b) Signals : Outer, Warner and bracketted Home
Starters are optional
Where Starter is not provided, warner shall prove
receipt of Line Clear on the BI
– (c) Points : As per para 143
– (d) Interlocking : (i) Interlocking between points and signals may
be direct or indirect. All signals must be operated
from a lever frame controlled by SM.
Standard II
(d) Interlocking (contd.) :
(ii) Interlocking between points and signals same as for std I and
must ensure correct setting of all trailing points for movement
over them.
(iii) If points and signals are operated from either end of station,
interlocking between them must be direct.
(iv) SM should have control over Home and LSS.
Standard III
• SEM para 173 lays down the requirements of
interlocking for Std III for 2 aspect signalling.
– (a) Isolation : Main line must be isolated.
– (b) Signals : Outer, Warner, Bracketted Home and Starter. Adv
str as necessary.
– (c) Points : As per para 144
– (d) Interlocking : Between points and signals must be direct and
comply with requirements in section A - J.
• Note 1: A passenger warning board at 1 km and Goods warning board
at 1.4 km in rear of Outer should be provided if warner is not
separated.
• Note 2: Unrestricted speed over indirectly interlocked siding points
may be permitted if point equipment is as per para 144
Standards of Interlocking
for multiple aspect signalling
• Para 174 (ii) lays down the requirements of
isolation,
• Para 174 (iii) lays down the requirements of
signals, and
• Para 174 (iv) lays down the requirements of
points equipment and interlocking
Standards of Interlocking
for multiple aspect signalling
• Isolation requirements : No difference
• Equipment of Points : No difference
• Interlocking requirements : No difference
• Signals :
– Std I : Distant and Home
– Std II : Distant, Home and Starter
– Std III : Distant, Home and Starter
Equipment of Points
• Para 141: For speeds upto 15 kmph over
facing points
• Para 142: For speeds upto 50 kmph over
facing points
• Para 143: For speeds upto 75 kmph over
facing points
• Para 144: For speeds in excess of 75 kmph
over facing points
Equipment of Points
• Para 141:
– (i) A bolt and cotter individually fitted to each
switch rail and padlock or a clamp and a
padlock for locking the switch rail to the stock
rail.
– (ii) A gauge tie plate where steel sleepers are
not provided.
Equipment of Points
• Para 142:
– (i) A key lock of approved type.
– (ii) A means for locking each switch independently.
– (iii) A means for preventing the points from being unlocked during
the passage of the train, unless the arrangement is such that a key
is used to release the signals and cannot be brought back to the
points until such signals have been put to the ‘on’ position.
– (iv) A means for detecting each switch independently by the
relative signals.
– (v) A gauge tie plate where steel sleepers are not provided.
Equipment of Points
• Para 143 :
– (i) A plunger type facing point lock. If the
plunger is hand operated or is of the economical
lock type, its full travel should be detected by
the relative signals.
– (ii) to (v) : Same as for Para 142 (ii) - (v)
– (ii) A means for locking each switch independently.
– (iii) A means for preventing the points from being unlocked during the passage of the train,
unless the arrangement is such that a key is used to release the signals and cannot be brought
back to the points until such signals have been put to the ‘on’ position.
– (iv) A means for detecting each switch independently by the relative signals.
– (v) A gauge tie plate where steel sleepers are not provided.
Equipment of Points
• Para 144 :
– (i) A plunger type facing point lock.
– (ii) A means for detecting the full travel of the lock
plunger by relative signals when the lock and switches
are operated by the same lever.(It is desirable that
plunger detection is also provided for independently
operated FPLs.
– (iii) A means for preventing the points from being
unlocked during the passage of train.
– (iv) to (vi) : Same as Para 142 (ii), (iv) & (v)
Comparison
1. Isolation

Item NI Std I Std II Std III

Main line
isolation
Not required Required

Isolation of
passenger lines R E Q U I R E D
from goods
lines & sidings
Comparison
2. Signals

Item NI Std I Std II Std III

Two aspect:
A class
Not usually adopted Warner, Home,
Starters
Outer &
Outer & Outer & Bracketted Outer,
Two aspect: home. Warner Bracketted
Common Bracketted
B class home should home,
home interlock with
B.I., if strs not Warner &
Warner in starters
MG, if reqd. provided
Two aspect:
Warner,
C class Not usually adopted Home
Comparison
2. Signals

Item NI Std I Std II Std III

Multi aspect: Distant, home Distant, home Distant, home, Distant, home,
B class Starter Starter

Multi aspect: Distant &

C class Not usually adopted home


Comparison
3. Points

Item NI Std I Std II Std III

Operation From a lever frame


Locally operated where points &
signals are grouped

Locking Bolt & cotter Key lock of Plunger type FPL, Plunger type
approved type which may be FPL operated
hand operated from LF
Switch Not required A means for detecting each switch independently
Detection should be provided
Lock Detection Not r e q u ir e Reqd if Hand Desirable
d operated
Route Holding Key used to release signals cannot be Lockbar
NA
brought back till signal is replaced to ON or TC
Comparison
4. Interlocking

Item NI Std I Std II Std III

Interlocking Not Indirect by Indirect by Direct


required key locks. key locks interlocking
Warner extends to bet signals
should trailing and points.
interlock points.
trailing Direct
points. locking bet
Direct signals
locking bet
signals
Important points:
• The major difference between Std I and Std II is that of
isolation.
• Std I and Std II are generally used on low density routes
(mostly single line sections).
• In Std I, the points are individually operated by spring loaded
levers whereas in Std II, they are grouped and operated from
a small ground frame.
• In Std I, Home need not be interlocked with trailing points
whereas Std II requires this interlocking.
• Std III does not permit indirect locking between points and
signals.