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Level Crossings

Level Xings
• What and Why
• Classification
• Requirements
What and Why
• When road traffic crosses the rail traffic at the
same level, they are known as level crossings.
• At level crossings, the road is brought upto the
level of rail table and guard rails are provided to
ensure clearance for wheel flanges.
• LCs become necessary because the alternative of
over/under bridges is very expensive
What and Why
• A level crossing (also written xing) will have an
arrangement to stop road traffic on either side of
the xing (except at D class xings).
• This arrangement can be swing gates, lifting
barriers or even a chain across the road.
• It will have check rails to keep the flange-way
clear.
• Provision of Warning signs are mandatory on
either side of the LC for warning road users
Classes of level crossings

• Special class
• A class
• B class
• C class
• D class (Cattle crossing)
Norms for deciding Class of a LC
• Classification is done considering class of road,
visibility and volume of road and rail traffic
• Number of trains per 24 hrs. multiplied by number
of road vehicles per 24 hrs. gives the “Train
Vehicle Units” or TVUs for the LC.
• If TVUs are more than 10,000 manning should be
done.
• Min TVUs should be 1 lakh to become eligible for
ROB/RUB on cost sharing basis.
Requirements - Special class

• Must be interlocked.
• Provision of lifting barriers is necessary.
• Gates are normally open to road traffic.
• Warning bell to warn road users if outside station
limits.
• Provision of telephone with nearest ASM is
necessary.
Requirements - A class
• Must be interlocked.
• Provision of lifting barriers is necessary.
• Gates normally open to road traffic.
• Warning to road users in suburban sections and
automatic section. Desirable for other sections
• Provision of telephone necessary for gates within
station limits, on Rajdhani routes & suburban
sections. Also at LCs located on curves with poor
visibility. (1998 orders - all manned gates to have
telephones).
Requirements - B class
• Interlocking: suburban, Gates operated from cabin
in non-suburban
• Provision of lifting barriers necessary
• Gates normally closed to road traffic. (Exception:
interlocked LCs, LCs having low road traffic and
closing of gates before taking off signals is laid
down).
• Provision of telephone necessary for gates within
station limits, on Rajdhani routes & suburban
sections. Also at LCs located on curves with poor
visibility. (1998 orders - all manned gates to have
telephones).
Requirements - C class
• Interlocking: Gates within stn limits if
oprated from cabin may be interlocked.
• Gates normally closed to road traffic.
• Provision of telephone necessary for gates
within station limits,.
Railway - wise LCs on IR
S.No. Manned Gates Unmanned Total Gates
Gates
CR 1793 1681 3474
ER 1266 1024 2290
NR 3160 4421 7581
NE 1518 3264 4782
NF 657 1699 2356
SR 2190 2566 4756
SC 1499 2055 3554
SE 1030 3716 4746
WR 3004 4128 7132
Total 16117 24554 40671

Source: Railway Board Statistics, January, 1998


Gate Signals

SEM 7.43 A Gate Stop Signal shall be fixed at an adequate


distance from the gate, this adequate distance not being less than
the value stipulated in para 7.45.1 and 7.45.2
SEM 7.44 The Gate Stop Signal shall be provided with ‘G’
marker except where prohibited under special instrcutions.
The ‘G’ marker shall consist of letter ‘G; in black on yellow
circular disc. The instructions in para 7.168.2 shall apply to
signals protecting level crossing gates in automatic block
territory.
Interlocked Gates outside Stn Limits

SEM 7.45.1 On sections provided with two aspect lower quadrant


signalling, a Stop Signal at 400 metres from the gate shall be
provided. Where the section is otherwise provided with separate
Warner signals, such a signal shall be provided at a distance of not
less than 1.2 km from the Gate Stop Signal.
SEM 7.45.2 On sections provided with multiple aspect/modified
lower quadrant signalling, a Stop Signal at 180 metres from the gate
and a Distant signal at 1 km in rear of the Stop Signal may be
provided.
Interlocked Gates within Stn Limits
SEM 7.46.1 On sections provided with two aspect lower quadrant signalling,
(a) The Outer Signal shall be located at a minimum distance of 400 metres from the gate;
(b) Where the Outer Signal cannot be so located and the Outer Signal falls in between
Home Signal and Gate, a separate Gate Signal may be located at a distance of 400 metres
in rear of the gate;
(c) Where there is adequate visibility of Outer Signal as prescribed in para 7.7.1, the Gate
Signal shall work independent of the Outer Signal;
(d) Where the visibility of Outer Signal is not adequate, the Outer Signal shall be shifted
and combined with the Gate Signal where feasible or interslotting arrangement shall be
provided between the Outer Signal and the Gate Signal.
SEM 7.46.2 On sections provided with Multiple aspect//modified Lower Quadrant
signalling, when the interlocked gates are situated between Distant and Home signal-
(a) The Gate Signal shall be located at 180 metres in rear of the gate;
(b) The Distant Signal shall be located at not less than 1 km in rear of the Gate Signal and
will function as Gate Distant as well.
Comparison

Item Spl class Class A Class B Class C

Normal Closed to road traffic. Can be kept open if -


position of Open to road traffic
i. It is not in suburban section
gate
ii. It is not in automatic / APB section

iv. Has telephone with nearest station


v. Visibility is good

Interlocking Should be interlocked Should be interlocked


with signals Should be interlocked with with station signals in with station signals if
when within suburban sections, in within stn limits where
stn limits station signals non-suburban sections operated from cabin
if operated from cabin and in automatic
and in automatic sections
sections
Comparison

Item Spl class Class A Class B Class C

Interlocking Should be interlocked Should be interlocked


with signals Should be interlocked with gate signals in suburban sections & in automatic sections
when outside in automatic sections
stn limits

Telephone Telephone with


Telephone with ASM office Telephone with ASM office at
communication ASM office
within stn limits manned gates

Telephone with adjoining stnc for Rajdhani


Telephone Telephone with ASM office of routes, on suburban section & on curves
communication adjoining stn obstructing the view of the LC from
outside stn approaching train and vice versa.
limits
Warning bell
operated by For LCs outside
approaching stn limits For LCs o/s stn limits in automatic / APB & in suburban sections
train
G A G A AG

Gate Stop Signal Gate Stop Signal in Gate Stop Signal in


Automatic Block semi-automatic
Territory (Letter A shall be territory (Letter A shall be
lit only when gates are closed lit only when gates are closed
and locked against road traffic) and locked & points are
correctly set and locked. Letter
AG shall be lit when points
are correctly set and locked but
gate is open or defective.)
Refer GR 3.17