Prepaired by :Akash Kumar Sahu Electrical Engg.

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but hydrocarbons such as natural gas and alcohols like methanol are sometimes used. combining hydrogen with oxygen to generate electricity without causing pollution. or A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent . Hydrogen is the most common fuel.What is FUEL CELL? A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that inprinciple operates like a battery. .

quiet and highly efficient process.two to three times more efficient than fuel burning. .  Fuel cells are different from batteries in that they require a constant source of fuel and oxygen to run.Why Is Fuel Cell Technology Important? Since conversion of the fuel to energy takes place via an electrochemical process. not combustion It is a clean. but they can produce electricity continually for as long as these inputs are supplied.

The only by-products are water and useful heat.  The process begins when hydrogen s negatively charged electrons from the positively charged protons  The catalyst coating separates . Hydrogen molecules enter the anode.Fuel cells combine hydrogen and oxygen electrochemically to produce electricity.

There the oxygen and the protons combine with the electrons after they have passed through the external circuit. but not the electrons Instead the electrons are directed through an external circuit which creates electrical current While the electrons pass through the external circuit. Individual fuel cells can then be placed in a series to form a fuel cell stack. When the oxygen and the protons combine with the electrons it produces water and heat.The electrolyte allows the protons to pass through to the cathode. oxygen molecules pass through the cathode. The stack can be used in a system to power a vehicle or provide stationary power to a building to .

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Block Diagram of the Component Parts of a Fuel Cell .

MAJOR TYPES OF FUEL CELL In general all fuel cells have the same basic configuration .an electrolyte and two electrodes Different types of fuel cells are classified by the kind of electrolyte used The type of electrolyte used determines the kind of chemical reactions that take place and the temperature range of operation .

about 175 degrees  Has a high power density. can vary its output quickly and is suited for applications where quick startup is required making it popular for automobiles  Sensitive to fuel impurities .Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)  This is the leading cell type for passenger car application electrolyte  Uses a polymer membrane as the  Operates at a relatively low temperature.

Alkaline Fuel Cell Requires pure hydrogen and oxygen because it is very susceptible to carbon contamination Purification process of the hydrogen and oxygen is costly Susceptibility to poisoning affects cell s lifetime which also affects the cost Can reach 70% power generating efficiency. but considered to costly for transportation applications Uses a solution of potassium hydroxide in water as the electrolyte and operates at 75 -160 degrees .

Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell  This is the most commercially developed fuel cell  It generates electricity at more than 40% efficiency  Nearly 85% of the steam produced can be used for cogeneration  Uses liquid phosphoric acid as the electrolyte and operates at about 450 degrees F use impure hydrogen as fuel  One main advantage is that it can .

Regenerative Fuel Cells  Currently researched by NASA  This type of fuel cell involves a closed loop form of power generation oxygen  Uses solar energy to separate water into hydrogen and  Hydrogen and oxygen are fed into the fuel cell generating electricity. heat and water  The water byproduct is then recirculated back to the solar-powered electrolyser beginning the process again .

A SIMULINK MODEL FOR CALCULATION OF FUEL CELL STACK PERFORMANCE .

6. and 14 represent the individual cells ‡ Re represents the cell (or electrolyte) resistance.187 . 12.54 V. 8. ‡I the current flowing through the stack. V = 2.42 A. and 34 represent the channels ‡4. 26. I = 0. 32. Rc = 1000 . ‡ V0 is the cell potential. Without protective current . Rc the channel resistance ‡ Rm the manifold resistance.The shunt current can be modelled using the electrical circuit shown in Fig ‡In which 20 represents the manifold ‡24. 10. Comparison of simulation and experimental current Re = 2. Error bars ± 1 mA. 28. 30. Rm = 150 .

 Fuel Cells have been proven to be 99. Telecommunications  Due to computers.999% reliable . Transportation  All major automakers are working to commercialize a fuel cell car  Fuel cell can be a replacement for combustion engine if used in stack. the Internet and sophisticated communication networks there is a need for an incredibly reliable power source.

Stationary Power Stations  Over 2.500 fuel cell systems have been installed all over the world in hospitals. hotels. schools and utility power plants  Most of these systems are either connected to the electric grid to provide supplemental power and backup assurance or as a grid-independent generator for locations that are inaccessible by power lines . office buildings. nursing homes.

. low weight and highly inflammable property  Requires higher investment in setup of a fuel cell power plant. Storage of Hydrogen to be used as a constant fuel for fuel cell because of its high volume.

y Promising technology. . y Most viable for nice market use in the near future y A reliable power source on which we can look up to for our future power needs. y Widespread marketplace acceptance and use is still many years away. y Environmental friendly.

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