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Advanced Wastewater Treatment

Removal Capacity of Conventional Treatment Processes

BOD & SS = 85 95 % Removal COD = 65% Removal

Remaining organic matter needs to be removed further

Advanced Wastewater Treatment

Remove constituents not adequately removed by secondary treatment Nitrogen, phosphorus, other soluble organic and inorganic compounds Accelerate plant growth, toxic, concentrate in food chain, increase chlorine demand, taste and odour problem

Limit for Sewage Treatment Plants (> 10,000 pe) in the EU Countries Effluent concentration Total nitrogen Total phosphorus 15 mg/l for plants < 100,000 pe 10 mg/l for plants >100,000 pe 2 mg/l for plants < 100,000 pe 1 mg/l for plants >100,000 pe Minimum elimination rate 70 80%


Nitrogen level in treated effluent in EU Countries Total N German - Ruhr new old Italy Denmark Netherland
note: * inorganic N

NH4-N 2.3 6.3 6+ 2 +

Bode and Klopp (2001) Carucci et al (1999) Rindel (2002) Van der Graaf (2001)

8.9* 14 2** 8 9
** as NH4+

NO3-N nitrate nitrogen

Common Processes
Biological nutrient removal Chemical coagulation and precipitation of phosphorus Ammonia stripping Breakpoint chlorination Filtration Carbon adsorption Ion exchange Membrane separation Ozonation

Biological Nutrient Removal BNR

Integrated with conventional biological process used for BOD and TSS removal Anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones for phosphorus release and uptake and nitrification and denitrification Effluent quality; BOD5/TSS/TP/TN = 5/5/1/5 mg/l Package constructed wetlands = 1 mg/l P

Enhanced Nitrogen Removal

High sludge age Nitrified Effluent Long detention time BOD/TKN = not less than 3 for biological nitrification
Nitrifiers are slow growth microorganisms as compared with heterotropic bacteria (in carbonaceous oxidation)

Nitrogen Removal - Nitrification

Organic Matter + O2 NH3 + Microorganisms + CO2 NH3 + 2O2 NO3 + H2O + Microorganisms Organic Matter + NO3 N2 + Microorganisms

Nitrosomonas (the rate limiting bacteria) converts ammonia to nitrite and Nitrobacter converts nitrite to nitrate
+ NH4

+ 2O2


+ 2H + H2O

Nitrification consumes alkalinity NH3 + 2O2 + NO3 + H + H2O + Microorganisms Need buffering capacity; maintain pH at 6.5 8.0 Abrupt drop in rate of nitrification beyond pH 6.5

 Anaerobic & Anoxic condition required  3 4 g methanol per gram of nitrate to be removed  Denitrifiers are sensitive to temperature variation  pH 6-8  2 3 h retention time  Minimum 1 2.5 d sludge age to produce flocculating sludge

How much methanol is consumed by oxidation of 30 mg/l NO3 ? Methanol demand for oxidation of nitrate = Half reaction for methanol + - [ 1/6 CO2 + H + e = 1/6CH3OH + 1/6H2O ] Half reaction for nitrate + [ 1/5 NO3 + 6/5 H + e = 1/10 N2 (g) + 3/5 H2O]
1/6CH3OH + 1/5 NO3 + 1/5 H Molecular Wt NO3 = 48 Molecular Wt CH3OH = 32 Amount of methanol consumed, M = 5.33/9.6 x 30 mg/l = 16.7 mg/l

1/10N2 + 1/6 CO2 + 13/30 H2O

Nitrification & Denitrification

Carbonaceous Oxidation

Carbonaceous Oxidation and Nitrification (in the same tank)

Nitrification Add methanol, ethanol, acetate, molasses Denitrification Denitrification

Biodenipho process
Process works using Anoxic-oxic cycle

(Nitrate decrease)

(Nitrate increase)

Lynetten, Copenhagen 750,000 pe - Biodenipho

Lynetten STP is Biodenipho (Nitrification-denitrification) that produce Total Nitrogen in effluent below 8 mg/l

Flowrate max Dry weather Flowrate storm Waste Characteristic

Lynetton STP - Biodenipho

m3/hr m3/hr m3/hr

750,000 PE
23,000 7,083 41,500 Raw effluent treated 15 75 8 (TN) 1.5

BOD (all in mg/l) COD TSS NH4-N TP Retention time (hr) Primary settling tanks BioP tanks Aeration tanks Final settling tanks Thickeners Digesters Biogas production Sludge incineration 2.7 3.4 20.8 8.3 1.4 22 days based on SRT 12,863 m3/d

150 400 200 40 9 19,200 24,000 147,000 59,100 10,000 18,000

in cubic metres:

0.7 m3/m3/day 7 tonnes/hr

Case study:
BNR at Princeton, Indiana USA

Phosphorus Removal
 Biological uptake by sludge  Chemical precipitation = lime and iron & aluminium salts  Luxury uptake = Sludge being treated anaerobically before returning the phosphorus deficient sludge to the reaction tank. The sludge would then assimilate greater quantity of phosphate than usual.

Enhanced Phosphorus Uptake

CAS = 1 2 % P Enhanced system = 3% P Detention time = 0.5 2 h
Anaerobic Aerobic

Produce short chain fatty acid & P released

Acid utilised & P taken up

Nitrified recycle

Anoxic Anoxic recycle





Nitrified recycle Anaerobic > Anoxic > Aerobic system ensures denitrification & P removal

Membrane Separation
What is a membrane What drives the separation Pore sizes, RO, UF, MF

Schematic Diagram of Membrane Separation

Salt Macromolecules



Selected Macromolecules



Membrane Filtration Spectrum

Qm (log scale) 0.1 1 Microfiltration Particle Filtration

0.001 Reverse Osmosis






Different Blocking Mechanisms

Complete blocking

Intermediate blocking

Cake filtration

Standard blocking

Crossflow and Dead-end Filtration

Feed Reject MEMBRANE Filtrate Filter Cake Time Feed MEMBRANE Filtrate Filter Cake Time Flux Flux

Solute Rejection & Breakthrough

Functional groups present in the membrane Nature of membrane surface Size of solute molecule Dissociation of solute molecule (pH dependent) Operation time

Ideal Membrane
High flux rate Tolerant to chlorine Resistant to biological attack Resistant to fouling Mechanically strong Inexpensive Chemically stable Excellent filtrate quality

Ozone is the triatomic form of oxygen (composed of three oxygen atoms), O3. Under normal conditions ozone is unstable and quickly decomposed to the more stable gaseous oxygen, O2. Because ozone is unstable and cannot be stored successfully, it must be generated at the point of application.

Ozone can be generated by passing oxygen, or air containing oxygen, through an area having an electrical discharge or spark. (A clean smell in the air after a thunder and lightning storm was most likely caused by ozone formed by lightning bolts passing through the atmosphere).

Typical ozonators have two large area metal electrodes separated by a dielectric and an air gap. An alternating electric current is applied to the electrodes creating an electrical discharge. At the same time air or oxygen is passed through the air gap. As the air or oxygen flows through the air gap, and the electrical discharge, a portion of the oxygen is converted to ozone. The dielectric is necessary to spread the electric discharge over the entire electrode area and avoid producing an intensive single arc.

The concentration of the ozone leaving the ozonator is approximately 1 to 2% by weight As with chlorination, the effectiveness of disinfection using ozone is depended on the concentration of the disinfectant, thorough mixing and contact time. To satisfy the mixing and contact time requirements, three general types of contactors are usually used: (1) packed bed, (2) sparged column, and (3) sparged column with mixing.

Advantages of Ozonation
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. eliminates odours reduces oxygen demanding matter, turbidity and surfactants removes most colours, phenolics and cyanides increases dissolved oxygen production of no significant toxic side products increases suspended solids reduction

Disadvantages of Ozonation
1. high capital cost 2. high electric consumption 3. highly corrosive, especially with steel or iron and even oxidizes Neoprene

Disinfection Using Ozone

Ozone is thirteen times more soluble in water than oxygen. When first introduced into wastewater, very little disinfection occurs. The ozone is rapidly consumed, satisfying the ozone demand of inorganic salts and organic matter dissolved in the wastewater. The disinfecting properties of the ozone come into play only after the ozone demand is satisfied. When the demand is satisfied, research studies indicate, ozone brings about disinfection 3100 times faster than chlorine.

Disinfection Using Ozone

It has also been found that disinfection occurs within contact times of 3 to 8 seconds. Typical ozone dosages needed to reach the disinfection stage vary with the quality of the effluent. Dosages between 5 to 15 mg/L are commonly cited for disinfection of secondary wastewater effluents. Ozone also exhibits excellent virocidal properties at these dosages but with longer contact time of about 5 minutes needed. It has also been found that any residual ozone in the effluent of the contactor disappears in a matter of seconds outside the contactor.

Other Uses of Ozone in Wastewater Treatment

Ozone has the ability to remove solids from wastewater by oxidation and physical floatation. A foam develops when wastewater is ozonated. It has been found that this foam traps a significant amount of solids and nutrient material such as phosphates and nitrates. pH has been found to increase very slightly because of ozonation. This is probably the affect of carbon dioxide being driven out of the solution by the gas feed in the ozone contactor.

Other Uses of Ozone in Wastewater Treatment

Colour and turbidity are reduced by addition of ozone. This is brought about by chemical oxidation of the substance causing the colour or turbidity. Some minor nitrification occurs, but not at levels high enough to consider ozonation as an effective nitrification process.

Safety of Ozone
The Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) of ozone in air, as established by the American Council of Governmental Industrial Hygienists is 0.1 ppm by volume for continuous human exposure. The threshold odor of ozone is 0.01 ppm. This means a person working near an ozone-handling area should be able to detect the presence of ozone at levels far below the MAC.

Other Uses of Ozone in Wastewater Treatment

The odor of ozone has been described as similar to that of cloves, new mown hay, nitric acid, etc., depending on the concentration. Concentrations greater than 1 ppm are extremely pungent and are considered unsafe for prolonged human exposure, and therefore should be avoided.