You are on page 1of 36


DEFINITION: Tablets are pharmaceutical dosage forms containing one or more active ingredients as well as series of other substances usually in powder form, pressed or compacted from a powder into a solid dosage.

y Production aspect:  Large scale production at lowest cost  Easiest and cheapest to package  High stability  User aspect: (doctor, pharmacist, patient)  Easy to handling  Lightest and most compact  Coating can mask unpleasant taste and improve patient acceptability.

y Some drugs may be unsuitable for a administration by

the oral route example : insulin y For drugs that need to have rapid onset the oral route may not be suitable example : salbutamol y Poor wetting , slow dissolution property difficult to formulate example : sodiumvalproate

Tablets are made by compressing a formulation containing drug or drugs with excipients on stamping machines called tablet presses.

Die filling

Tablet formation

Tablet ejection

 Hopper(s)  Feed frame  Dies  Punches  Cam tracks

y Punches for compressing the formulation into tablets

with in the dies.

y Dies for controlling size and shape of the tablet.

y The compression takes place in a die by the action of

two punches lower and the upper , by which the compressive force is applied.
y Curvature of the faces of the punches y punch faces with ridges y Punch faces with symbols y Punches with various shapes

Eg: effervescent tablets, analagics,

Eg: Multi vitamins tablets

Source: Tablet Press Instrumentation-MARCEL DEKKER, INC. 270 MADISON AVENUE NEW YORK, NY 10016

History of tablet press instrumentation :

To monitor and control a tablet press certain sensors must be installed at Specific locations on the machine which are known as transducers.

These are two types :

2 types of force transducers are used in instrumentation of Tablet press they are:

These are used to measure the distance which the punches travel During the compression and decompression process.

Linear variable differential transformer is one of the displacement Transducer.

Source: Tablet Press Instrumentation-MARCEL DEKKER, INC. 270 MADISON AVENUE NEW YORK, NY 10016

y Single punch tablet machine y Rotary tablet machine:

High speed rotary tablet machine 2. Multi layer rotary tablet machine

Wyeth brothers invented the single punch press in 1870

All of the compression is applied by the upper punch, Making the single punch Machine a stamping press




Rotary tablet machine

y Multi-station presses are termed as rotary the head of

the tablet machine that holds upper punches ,dies , lower punches in place rotates .
y As the head rotates , the punches are guide up and

down by fixed cam tracks which control the sequence of filling , compression , ejection.

Old rotary tablet machine

ZP35B Rotary Tablet Pre-press Machine

S.No 1. 2. 3. 4.

Single tablet press Rotary tablet press Production rate is low 200 tablets per minute Small scale production Production rate is high <10000 tablets per minute Large scale production

For formulation For commercial development during production of tablets trails Lower punch is stationary Both punches are moving

5. 6. 7. 8.

2 punches & one die No. of dies and sets of set punches Time consuming Labor cost is low Time efficient Labor cost is high

y The most important factor limiting the production capacity of tablet press is

the rate at which the die cavity filled with granulation. y For increased production rotary presses are more advantageous than single punch presses. y Along with basic components of press other parts are incorporated to control the operation of tablet machine for more efficient & speed. y Instrumentation of tablet machine is carried out to prepare tablets under defined conditions and also to describe and analyze the compression properties of materials by studying the punch forces and punch displacements during compression and decompression phases.

LEON LACHMAN , HERBERT A.LIBERMAN the theory and practice of industrial pharmacy third edition page no :-293-305 REMINGTON the science and practice of pharmacy 21st edition page no :-904-908 BENTLAY S the text book of pharmaceutics page no :-281-288 Aulton's Pharmaceutics 3rd edition The design and manufacture of medicines. Page no:442-446 Tablet Press Instrumentation-MARCEL DEKKER, INC.