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ANNOTATED OUTLINE The concept of career

A career comprises of a series of work related activities, that offer continuity, order and meaning to a persons life. The underlying idea behind a career is that a person can shape his destiny through a number of well planned and well timed, positive steps. The success of ones career, therefore, depends on the individual more than anything else.

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The concept of HRD

People can do better; they can do wonders. Involve them, trust them and empower them: treat them as resources, as assets. HRD a humanistic concept Focus on the strengths of people and help them overcome their weaknesses. Integrate the needs and aspirations of individuals into the strategic goals and the mission of an organisationfor better results. Encourage individual initiative and response by providing a fostering culture (openness, trust, collaboration, mutuality etc.)

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HRD philosophy
HRD in India

Human resources are the most important assets in the organisation. Human resources can be developed to an unlimited extent. Two plus two could be five, six or ten. A healthy organisational climate (openness, trust, collaboration) is essential for developing human resources. HRD can be planned and implemented to benefit both individuals and organisations. If the organisation is able to inculcate a spirit of belongingness in its employees, they will be more loyal and committed. To ensure this healthy feeling, the organisation has to provide for their basic as well as higher order needs through appropriate management styles and systems. The commitment of employee increases when he/she is able to find opportunities to use his/her potential while at work. The managers must clear the paths, create a developmental climate and help employees realise their full potential. The higher the level of the manager the more attention should be paid to the HRD function in order to ensure its effectiveness. The maintenance of a healthy working climate and the development of its human resources are the responsibilities of every organisation.

Features of HRD
HRD is a process by which the employees of an organisation are helped to help themselves and develop the organisation. It has the following features  HRD is a system  HRD is a planned process  HRD involves the development of competencies at the Individual level Interpersonal level Group level Organisational level  HRD is an inter disciplinary concept  HRD is a way of improving the quality of working life
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Benefits of HRD
1. HRD improves the capabilities of people. They become innovative and enterprising ever eager to take risk and get ahead. It improves the all round growth of an employee. Feedback and guidance from superiors help employees grow continually and show superior performance. 2. 3. 4. HRD improves team work. Employees become more open and trust each other. The organisational climate, too, improves a lot. HRD leads to greater organisational effectiveness. Appropriate employeecentred policies help the organisation achieve its goals more efficiently. Performance related rewords help employees realise the importance of utilising their skills fully in the service of organisational goals. The organisations overall health and self-renewing capabilities, too, improve quite significantly.

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Evolution of The Concept Of HRD

The early part of the century saw a concern for improved efficiency through careful design of work. Improving employee productivity and efficiency was the next big thing to hit the business world. Recent years have witnessed an increasing tilt towards improving the quality of working life, product and service quality, and speedy and efficient delivery of work.

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Evolution of the personnel function

Concept The Commodity Concept Whats it all about? Labour was regarded as a commodity to be bought and sold. Wages were based on demand and supply. Government did very little to protect workers.

The Factor of Production Concept

Labour is like any other factor of production, viz, money, materials, land etc. Workers are like machine tools. Welfare measures like safety, first aid, lunch room, rest room will have a positive impact on workers productivity. Management must assume a fatherly and protective attitude towards employers. Paternalism does not mean merely providing benefits but it means satisfying various needs of the employees just as parents meet the requirements of the children. To improve' productivity, physical social and psychological needs of workers must be met. As Mayo and others stated, money is less a factor in determining output, than group standards, group incentives and security. The organisation is a social system that has both economic and social dimensions. Employees are the most valuable assets of an organisation. There should be a conscious effort to realise organisational goals by satisfying needs and aspirations of employees.

The Goodwill Concept

The Paternalistic Concept/ Paternalism

Humanitarian Concept

The Human Resource Concept

The Emerging Concept: HRD

Employees should be accepted as partners in the progress of a company. They should have a feeling that the organisation is their own. To this end, managers must offer better quality of working life and provide opportunities to people to exploit their potential fully. There should be opportunities for self-fulfilment in one's work. The focus should be on Human Resource Development.

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HRD at Micro and Macro Level

At the macro level, HRD is concerned with the development of people for the nations well being HRD at the micro level deals with an organisations human resource planning, selection, training, performance appraisal, compensation issues.

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HRD vs Personnel Function

The differences between the personnel function and HRD may be listed thus

Personnel function vs. HRD

Personnel Function Maintenance oriented An independent function with independent sub-functions Reactive function, responding to events as and when they take place Exclusive responsibility of personnel department Emphasis is put on monetary rewards Points of distinction Orientation Structure Philosophy Responsibility Motivators HRD Development oriented. Consists of inter-dependent parts. Proactive function, trying to anticipate and get ready with appropriate responses. Responsibility of all managers in the organisation. Emphasis is on higher-order needs such as how to design jobs with stretch, pull and challenge; how to improve creativity and problem solving skills, how to empower people in all respects, etc. Better use of human resources leads to improved satisfaction and morale. It tries to develop the organisation as a whole and its culture.

Improved performance is the result of improved satisfaction and morale Tries to improve the efficiency of people and administration.

Outcomes AIMS

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HRD Matrix
The HRD matrix shows the interrelationships between HRD instruments, processes, outcomes and organisational effectiveness .
A Schematic Presentation of Linkages between HRD Instruments, Processes, Outcomes and Organisational Effectiveness
HRD Mechanism or Sub-systems or Instruments  HRD Department  Performance Appraisal  Review, Discussion, Feedback, Counselling Sessions  Role Analysis Exercises  Potential Development Exercises  Training  Commu nicat ion Policies  Job Rotations  OD Exercises  Rewards  Job-enrichment Programmes  Other Mechanisms H R D P r o ce s se s & HRD Climate Variables  Role Clarity  Planning of Development by every Employee  Awareness of Competencies Required for JobPerformance  Proactive Orientation  More Trust  Collaboration & T eam Work  Authenticity  Openness  Risk-taking  Value Generation  Clarification of Norms and Standards  Increased Communication  More Objective Rewards  Generation of Objective, Data on Employees, etc. Other Factors Personnel Policies, T op M a n a g e m e n t S ty le s , Investm ents on H R D , To p M an ag em e nts C om m itm e nts, H isto ry, P re vio u s C u ltu re , L in e M a n ag e rs In te res t, e tc. HRD Outcomes Variables  More Competent People  Better Developed Roles  Higher Workcommitment & Job Involvement  More problem Solving  Better Utilisation of Human Resources  Higher Jobsatisfaction and Work Motivation  Better Generation of Internal Resources  Better Organisational Health  More Team-work, Synergy and Respect for Each other Organisational Effectiveness Dimensions  Higher Productivity and  Growth Diversification  Cost Reduction  More Profits  Better Image

Other Factors Environment, T echnology, Resource Availability, History, Nature of Business etc.

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(T Rao, The HRD Missionary, Oxford IBH, New Delhi, 1990) .V.

HRD Mechanisms or Subsystems

The following HRD mechanisms are currently in use in order to development competencies of people and improve the overall organisational climate

HRD Mechanisms
      Performance appraisal Potential appraisal Career planning Training and employee development Organisation development Rewards  External equity  Internal equity  Individual equity Employee welfare and quality of working life  Employee involvement


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HRD Mechanisms
       Quality circles Socio technical system Codetermination Self managed work teams Suggestion programmes Open door policies

Human resource information system

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The Contribution of HRD Subsystems to HRD Goals

Each subsystem, listed above, is interlinked to other subsystems and offer rich benefits to an organisation when they are properly integrated.

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The contribution of HRD subsystems to development dimension

Development Dimensions Individual Training Feedback and coaching performance Individual in the present role Performance appraisal HRD Subsystems Mechanism Career Planning Rewards Training Rewards Individual in regard to likely future roles Potential appraisal and development Training Performance appraisal Feedback and performance coaching Dyadic relationships Teams & Teamwork Collaboration among different units/teams Self-renewing capability and health of organisation Feedback and performance coaching Organisation development Organisation development Performance appraisal Performance appraisal Training Training Organisation development Training Training Team rewards Feedback and performance coaching Potential Appraisal and Development

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Principles In Designing HRD Systems

    Management support Focus of the HRD system Structure of the HRD system Functioning of the system

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The New People Management

Many Indian companies, now a days, talk about the new people management with the following objectives in mind  Corporate goals linked to individual career goals  Company profits linked to personal rewards  Organisational learning must involve employee training  Job responsibilities must facilitate personal development  Business strategies must consider human resource issues

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The new people management

The New People Management Management Philosophy Business Strategy Markets and Environment

NPM Philosophy Policies Programmes

Practices Recruitment Training Development Performance management Organisational exit Evaluation of NPM practices


Appraisal reward

Behavioural Sciences

Quality management

Industrial Psychology

Labour La ws

HRD in India