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Scheduling

Prepared by: Ak n zkan Burcu Uzman Meryem Zmra Y ld z Semih Yara k

Content
1. Definition of Scheduling 1.1. Components of Scheduling 1.2. Where to use? 1.3. Estimation 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Precedence Diagrams or Networks 3.1. First and Last Events 3.2. Types of Network Diagrams 3.3. Dummy Activities 3.4. AON vs. AOA 3.5. Schedule Network Methodology 3.6. Start Event 3.7. LOGON Task Table & AON Diagram 3.8. Incorrect AOA Example 3.9. Key Features of Schedule Networks 3.10. An Example of Early and Late Times for AON 3.11. Network Methods 4. Our Company 4.1. Company Profile 4.2. Definition of Project 5. Scheduling of Our Project 5.1. Work Breakdown Structure 5.2. Work Packages 5.3. Gantt Chart 5.4. Critical Path 6. Reference List

1. Definition
y Sharing always results in contention
1. Definition

y A scheduling discipline resolves contention:

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

whos next ? 1. Key to fairly sharing resources and providing performance guarantees 2. Split project into tasks (= create a WBS) 3. Estimate time and resources required to complete each task. 4. Organize tasks concurrently to make optimal use of workforce. 5. Minimize task dependencies to avoid delays caused by one task waiting for another to complete. 6. Dependent on project managers intuition and experience.
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4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

1. Definition
Project scheduling involves,
1. Definition

y Estimated start time y Required completion time y WBS (Work Breakdown Structure)

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

y Scheduling the activities


5. Scheduling of our Project

y Allocating owners and resources


6. Reference List

1.1. Components of Scheduling


1. Definition

A scheduling discipline does two things: y decides service order y manages queue of service request

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

y Example: Consider queries awaiting web server scheduling

4. Our Company

discipline decides service order and also if some query should be ignored.

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

1.2. Where to use?


y Anywhere where contention may occur
1. Definition

y At every layer of protocol stack y Usually studied at network layer, at output queues of

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

switches

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

1.3. Estimation
Activities/task characterized by:
1. Definition

y Effort: how much work will the activity need to be completed y Resources: how many resources will be working on the

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

activity
y Duration: how long will the activity last for

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

estimation technique provide (at least) two of the quantities specified above

6. Reference List

1.3. Estimation
1. Definition

Effort
y Your best shot for providing estimations (how complex/how

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

much work does the activity require?)


y Measured in man/month

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

y Mind you though: communication increases the time to


6. Reference List

complete activities

1.3. Estimation
1. Definition

Resources
y The best point is to determine how many resources will work

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

in the activity

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

1.3. Estimation
1. Definition

Duration
y How much time will the activity last for y Measured in (work-)hours, (work-)days, (work) months, y Calendar time != duration: calendar time includes non-

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

working days, holidays,


6. Reference List

y Usually:

y A duration of 5 days == 40 hours (8 hours a day) = 1

calendar week (sat and sun rest time)

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2. Gantt Chart
y
1. Definition

Gantt Chart is a way to graphically show progress of a project. Gantt chart is useful tool for planning and scheduling projects. A Gantt chart is helpful when monitoring a project's progress. With Gantt chart, all subtasks of a task can be viewed graphically.

y y y

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

A Gantt chart showing three kinds of schedule dependencies (in red) and percent complete indications

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2. Gantt Chart Example


1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

y A Gantt chart created using Microsoft Project (MSP).

6. Reference List

Note (1) the critical path is in red, (2) the slack is the black lines connected to non-critical activities, (3) since Saturday and Sunday are not work days and are thus excluded from the schedule, some bars on the Gantt chart are longer if they cut through a weekend.
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3. Precedence Diagrams or Networks


y Shows tasks and their relationships.
1. Definition

y Exposes tasks that must be completed before others.


2. Gantt Chart MS Project

y Called a precedence diagram. y Arrows show how tasks are ordered and flow of time.

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

Key elements include determining predecessors and defining attributes such as: y early start date y last-last y early finish date y late finish date y Duration y WBS reference
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3.1. First and Last Events


y First event has no predecessors
1. Definition

y Last event has no successors y All networks have a first and last event.

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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3.2. Types of Network Diagrams


1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

y Activity on Node (AON)


y Used in CPM

3. Networks

4. Our Company

y Activity on Arc (AOA)


y Used in PERT

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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3.2.1. Activity on Node (AON) Diagrams


y Bubble Chart
1. Definition

The most common information shown is:


2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

y The activity name y The normal duration time y The early start time (ES) y The early finish time (EF) y The late start time (LS) y The late finish time (LF) y The slack

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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3.2.1. AON Chart based on Activities and Predecessors


1. Definition A node like this one (from Microsoft Visio) can be used to display the activity name, duration, ES, EF, LS, LF, and slack

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

A network diagram created using Microsoft Project (MSP). Note the critical path is in red.

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3.2.2. Activity on Arc (AOA) Diagrams


1. Definition

y Events are in bubbles.

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

y Activities represented by lines or arcs


y Delimited by Bubbles (Events)

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

y Requires Dummy Activities to illustrate precedence

6. Reference List

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3.2.2. Activity on Arc (Arrow) Diagrams


Start
1. Definition

Finish event 8 weeks Activity Y: Final installation

event

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

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3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

In the network diagram shown, each arc represents an activity and is labelled with the activity number . This network is an activity on arc (AOA) network. The nodes of the network represent the start (and end) of activities and are regarded as events.

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3.3. Dummy Activities


1. Definition

Dummy Activity: Represents a dependency between tasks which doesnt represent any activity.

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

When two paths in an activity network (edges as activities) have a common event but are independent, or partly independent of one another, it is necessary to introduce a dummy activity,

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3.4. AON vs. AOA


y AON networks do not use dummy events
1. Definition

y Simpler and easier to generate than AOA y Popular in Construction Industry

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

y AOA method places emphasis on Events


y Developed before AON y Better for PERT charts y AOA line segments imply flow of time y Look similar to Gantt Charts

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

y Most Software packages create both

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3.5. Schedule Network Methodology


y Tabulate Tasks (Activities)
1. Definition

y Determine Task Duration


2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

y Determine Immediate Predecessors y Assign Start Event Date and Time

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

We are only interested in Process

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3.6. Start Event


y Establish Start Date
1. Definition

y Calculate all other event dates using Schedule Logic and


2. Gantt Chart MS Project

Task Duration
y Schedule network determines dates, not the other way

3. Networks

4. Our Company

around
y If finish date is incompatible with project goals, you must

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

adjust the schedule assumptions y Logic (Workarounds) y Task Duration (More People or Overtime)

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3.7. LOGON Task Table


1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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3.7. LOGON AON Diagram


1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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3.8. Incorrect AOA Example


1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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3.9. Key Features of Schedule Networks


y Critical Path
1. Definition

y Early Times
2. Gantt Chart MS Project

y Start y Finish

3. Networks

4. Our Company

y Late Time
y Start y Finish

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

y Total Slack y Free Slack


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3.9.1. Critical Path


y Concept of Path Length through network
1. Definition

y Calculate for all possible paths by traversing Network from


2. Gantt Chart MS Project

left to right
y Longest path length from start event to finish event is critical

3. Networks

4. Our Company

path

5. Scheduling of our Project

y Activities on the critical path cause a day-for-day slip in the

6. Reference List

completion event

y After calculating the critical path, look for things that can be

done in parallel y Shortens critical path


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3.9.1. LOGON Critical Path Determination


1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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3.9.2. Early Expected Time of an Event


y Designated as TE
1. Definition

y Calculation of Early Expected Time is part of schedule


2. Gantt Chart MS Project

analysis
y Events which are not on the critical path can be started early
y By definition, events on the critical path cannot be

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

started early y Can have more than one critical path, on that path events cannot be started early
y Calculated by taking the sum of all task durations on the

longest path leading to the event y Traverse network from left to right
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3.9.2. Early Expected Time Determination


1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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3.9.3. Latest Allowable Time of an Event


y Designated as TL
1. Definition

y Latest time to which an event can be slipped without


2. Gantt Chart MS Project

affecting succeeding events


y Calculated by taking the sum of all task durations on the

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

longest backward path from the finish date to the event of interest y Traverse network from right to left

6. Reference List

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3.9.3. Latest Allowable Time Determination


1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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3.9.4. Total Slack


y Slack is the range of allowable time between when a task
1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

can be started, and when it must be started y Once slack is used up, the finish date of the project is affected y The task of interest is now on the critical path

3. Networks

4. Our Company

y Total slack of an activity is the amount of slack available to all

activities on a given subpath of a network


y Total slack of activities on the critical path is zero y Total Slack of an activity (task) is calculated as follows:

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

Total Slack = LS - ES
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3.9.5. Free Slack


y Activities not on the critical path can be delayed without
1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

affecting the start time of succeeding tasks y Free slack of an activity is the amount of time that the activity can slip without affecting its successors y Assumes that the TE of all preceding tasks has been met y Free Slack of an activity is calculated as follows:

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

Free Slack = ES (earliest successor) - EF

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3.10. An Example of Early and Late Times for AON


1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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3.11. Network Methods


y CPM (Critical Path Method)
1. Definition 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 4. Our Company

y PDM (Precedence Diagramming Method) y MPM (Metra Potential Method) y PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique)

6. Reference of our 5. SchedulingList Project

6. Reference List

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3.11.1. Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)


y Utilizes three time estimates for each activity
1. Definition

y Optimistic, a y Most Likely, m y Pessimistic, b

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

y Beta Probability Distribution Function for Each Activity


4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

y Calculates Expected Time, t y Calculates Variance, V

6. Reference List

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3.11.2. Estimating Activity Time


1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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3.11.3. Probability of Finishing by A Target Completion Date


y Expected duration of project T is the sum of expected Activity
1. Definition

times on Critical Path

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

y Variation in the Project Duration Distribution is the sum of the

variations of the activity durations on the Critical Path

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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3.11.4. Pert Network with Expected Times and Variances


1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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3.11.5. PERT Advantages/Disadvantages


y Allows sensitivity analysis to determine probability of
1. Definition

finishing the project on time

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

y Does not account for Near Critical Path y Extremely complicated y Cannot account for errors in schedule logic or the ability of

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

project manager to alter schedule logic via workarounds


y Bottom Line: No better than MS Project and a lot more

6. Reference List

complicated!

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3.11.6. Near-Critical Paths


y PERT is overly Optimistic
1. Definition

y Paths near the Critical Path with Large Variance may


2. Gantt Chart MS Project

become critical
y Probability of Completing All Paths is the Product of

3. Networks

4. Our Company

Probability on each Path

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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3.11.7. Meeting the Target Date


y Actions to Shorten to Project
1. Definition

y Move Activity on the Critical Path to a Parallel Path y Add or transfer resources from activities with large slack

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

to critical or near-critical activities y Substitute less time-consuming activities or delete those that are not of utmost importance

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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3.11.8. Criticisms of Target Date Actions


y Paralleling Activities can be risky, failure of one can hurt the
1. Definition

other
y Adding or transferring resources to speed activities increases

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

cost and denies resource leveling

3. Networks

4. Our Company

y Substitution or Elimination can degrade end-item

Performance, Requirements, Poor Quality of Work

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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3.11.9. Simulation of PERT Network


y Uses Monte Carl Methods to show the Near-Critical Path
1. Definition

Sensitivity

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

y Procedure gives an Average Project Duration and Standard

3. Networks

Deviation (Variance) which is more realistic than simple PERT

4. Our Company

y Returns Probabilities ff Other Paths Becoming Critical y Allows Historical Data

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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3.11.10. Activities and Time Estimates from Evans and Olson


1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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3.11.11. Project Network from Evans and Olson


1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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3.11.12. Crystal Ball Simulation Results


1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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3.11.13. Criticisms of PERT


y Assumes Activity times can be Accurately Estimated and are
1. Definition

Independent

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

y Three estimates are guesses, not necessarily better than one

guess

3. Networks

4. Our Company

y Contractual Arrangements Influence Time Estimates y Activity Times are not Independent ( Constant Energy

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

Surface)

y Conflict of necessary Resources

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3.11.13. Criticisms of PERT


y Leads to Overly Optimistic Results
1. Definition

y Looking only at Critical Path Misleading y Near-Critical Paths must be Considered

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

y The Beta Distribution Gives Large Errors in Estimating T y Errors in T come from faulty time estimates

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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4.1. Company Profile


y Company Name: The Bosphorus Organisation and
1. Definition

Consulting Company
y Founded in: 2000 y Headquarter: Bremen y Employees: 75 y Average Revenue: 3.2 m y Departments: y Project/Event Management&Development

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

Congress & Meetings y Incentive & Events Project/Event Management Consulting


y Consulting Services

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4.1. Organisation Chart


1. Definition
Head of the Bosphorus Consulting&Organisation Co.

2. Gantt Chart MS Project


Project/Event Management&Development Project/Event Management Consulting

3. Networks

4. Our Company
Congress&Meetings Incentive&Events Consulting Services

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List
ESD 2010 Project team

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4.2. Definition of Project


y Project Name: European Students Days in Bremen 2010
1. Definition

y Project Period: 17-23 July 2010 y Project Goal: Between young people;

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

y Close communication and cooperation y To gain new knowledge y Exchange ideas

5. Scheduling of our Project

y Customers/Sponsors:
y All Students from European Countries y Municipality of Bremen y Hochschule Bremen University of Applied Sciences

6. Reference List

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4.2. Event Program of ESD 2010


1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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5.1. Work Breakdown Structure


1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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5.2. Work Packages


1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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5.3. Gantt Chart


1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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5.4. Critical Path


1. Definition

2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

6. Reference List

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6. Reference List
y Dennis Lock, Project Management, Gower Publishing; 8th
1. Definition

y
2. Gantt Chart MS Project

3. Networks

4. Our Company

5. Scheduling of our Project

y y y

6. Reference List

Edition, 2002 Project Management Institute (2003). A Guide to The Project Management Body of Knowledge (3rd ed.). Project Management Institute Martin Stevens (2002). Project Management Pathways. Association for Project Management. APM Publishing Limited, 2002 Albert Hamilton (2004). Handbook of Project Management Procedures. TTL Publishing, Ltd. Lewis R. Ireland (2006) Project Management. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. The Definitive Guide to Project Management. Nokes, Sebastian. 2nd Ed.n. London (Financial Times / Prentice Hall): 2007.
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Thanks for your attention!


Ak n zkan a.ozkan@bosphoruscompany.de +49 18140307112 Burcu Uzman b.uzman@bosphoruscompany.de +49 18140307113 Meryem Zmra Y ld z m.yildiz@bosphoruscompany.de +49 18140307114 Semih Yara k s.yarasik@bosphoruscompany.de +49 18140307115
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