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Chapter 13

A psychotic disorder that may involve characteristic disturbances in:


 Thinking (DELUSIONS)  Perception (HALLUCINATIONS)  Speech  Emotions  Behavior

Delusion A misrepresentation of reality. (Cognitive)

Hallucination Seeing, hearing, or sensing things although they are not actually there. (Sensory)

Schizophrenia has a prevalence of estimated around 0.2% to 1.5%. Life expectancy is slightly less then normal, partly due to the higher rate of suicide and accidents 48% chance of development of schizophrenia if identical twin is diagnosed.

Paranoid Disorganized Catatonic Undifferentiated Residual

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Delusions and Hallucinations usually have a theme, such as grandeur or persecution. Cognitive skills and affect are relatively intact.

Marked disruption in their speech and behavior. Flat or inappropriate affect. Delusions or Hallucinations tend not to be organized around a central theme.( fragmented )

Unusual motor responses. Engage in excessive activity. Odd mannerisms with their bodies and faces.

Negative Withdrawal immobility, posturing, mutism Automatic routine obedience, waxy flexibility Repetitive/Echo grimacing, perseveration, echolalia Agitated/Resistive excitement, impulsivity, combativeness.

People who do not fit neatly into a subtype. Include people who have major symptoms of schizophrenia but who do not meet the criteria for paranoid, disorganized, or catatonic types.

People who no longer manifest major symptoms of schizophrenia.

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Erotomanic irrational belief that one is loved by another person, usually of higher status. Grandiose believing in ones inflated worth, power, knowledge, identity, or special relationship to a deity or famous person. Jealous belief that their sexual [partner is unfaithful. Persecutory believing your being malevolently treated in some way. Somatic feeling afflicted by a physical defect or general medical condition.

A persistent belief that is contrary to reality. May become socially isolated due to their suspicions of others.

Visual Hallucinations
 Seeing something that is not really there.

Avolition Inability to initiate and persist in activities. Alogia A relative absence of speech. Anhedonia A presumed lack of pleasure. Affective Flattening An absence of emotion where you would normally expect it.

Auditory Hallucinations
 Most common hallucination  Suggested that metacognition is the origin of

auditory hallucinations.

Disorganized Speech Jumping from topic to topic and/or talking illogically.

Symptoms of Schizophrenia along with a mood disorder. (i.e depression, bipolar effective disorder)

Inappropriate Affect Laughing or crying and inappropriate times.

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Theories:
 Brain damage (frontal lobes, dorsolateral prefrontal    

In the 1930s:
 Injection of insulin to induce comas.  Psychosurgery prefrontal lobotomies.  Electroconvulsive therapy.

cortex, thalamus, stratum). Prenatal exposure to influenza. Excessive stimulation of the striatal dopamine D2 receptors. Deficient stimulation of the prefrontal dopamine D1 receptors. NMDA deficiency.

1950s Present
 Neuroleptics (Antipsychotics) dopamine antagonist.  Psychosocial Interventions.  Social Skills Training helps patients with

communication, and controls outbursts.

Extrapyramidal Symptoms:
 Motor difficulties similar to those of Parkinsons

disease.  Akinesia expressionless face, slow motor activity and monotonous speech.  Tardive Dyskenesia Involuntary movements of the tongue, face, mouth or jaw.

Vaccinations against viruses for women of childbearing age. Improving prenatal nutrition and care.

What percent chance do you have of developing schizophrenia if your identical twin has it?
 A) 10%  B) 25%  C) 48%  D) 60%

What is the suggested origin of auditory hallucinations?


 A) Your own thoughts (metacognition)  B) Aliens  C) Mr. Popiolek  D) All of the above

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What may be the root cause of schizophrenia?


 A) Prenatal exposure to influenza.  B) Brain damage  C) Genetics  D) Neurotransmitter excess or insufficiency  E) All of the above

What is the most common hallucination experienced by people suffering from schizophrenia?
 A) Auditory  B) Visual

Name the disorder associated with schizophrenia, that also involves having a mood disorder?
 A) Schizoaffective Disorder  B) Delusional Disorder  C) Paranoid Schizophrenia  D) Disorganized Schizophrenia