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LAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES

CHAPTER 3: MULTI-RACIAL SOCIETY OF MALAYSIA 3.3:


NATIONAL INTEGRATION

NATIONAL INTEGRATION
Integration is the biggest problem. Differences between the races can create tensions & jeopardize the safety of the country. The 13th May 1969 Event is viewed by a lot as the peak of manifestation of national integration problems. Riots between races caused tension. Since then, Government has given priority to national integration in the policies executed.

NATIONAL INTEGRATION
Integration problems have started since the British colonization period. Divided & ruled policies to split races according to space & functions. Space = 3 major races placed in 3 different places. a) Malays - in rural areas such as the villages (kampung). b) Chinese tin mines and commerce development. c) Indians - in rubber estates.

NATIONAL INTEGRATION
Functions = functions of each race. a) Malays - allowed to be involved in peasantry activities especially traditional agriculture and fishing. b) Chinese - articled as miners and businessman. c) Indians - were seen as estate laborers. Differences in space & functions cause the 3 main races to split and have a minimum contact. After the 13 May 1969 Events, serious effort has been taken to achieve the objective.

NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY


Was created to achieve the countrys objective as an independent political entity. Main objective = to fulfill national development requirement & achieve national integration. A need for National Education Policy is the effect from the failure of the previous National Education Policy to educate the people toward national integration.

NATIONAL INTEGRATION
During colonization = British did not have a clear education policy if viewed from the local point of view. British developed 4 schooling systems which are English, Malay, Chinese and Tamil medium. All 4 mediums have differences in terms of objectives, syllabus, language and teachers qualifications.

NATIONAL INTEGRATION
English schools are meant to prepare students for furthering studies to secondary schools. Chinese schools for students going to China. Tamil Schools are aimed at attracting more Indian laborers to Malaya. Syllabus = English schools used syllabus from England, Chinese Schools & Tamil Schools used syllabus from their respective countries. Malay schools emphasized on religious study.

ESTABLISHMENT OF NES CHEESEMAN PLAN


British produced the Cheeseman Plan proposal. Cheeseman Plan proposed that: Free seats should be given to children attending vernacular primary schools. English language to be made the medium language at all the primary schools. 2 types of secondary schools should be build. 1938 Education Report proposal on vocational education must be fully implemented.

a) b) c) d)

ESTABLISHMENT OF NES BARNES REPORT


1950 - British established a committee led by L.J. Barnes (Societal Training Director of the University of Oxford) to study the education system in this country. The committee was established after being pressured by the Malay leaders. The report of the committee was later or known as the Barnes Report.

ESTABLISHMENT OF NES BARNES REPORT


a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

The report proposed that:: Primary schools be made as bases of racial unification. Only national schools should be established. Malay Language is the main medium of language. English Language is the 2nd medium of language. Schooling age of children is between 6 to 12 years. Primary school students will enter secondary English schools. Free education will be provided. Local government should bear 1/2 of schooling expenses.

ESTABLISHMENT OF NES FENN - WU REPORT


The proposal in the Barnes Report gave rise to ideas towards the establishment of national integration. This proposal was opposed by non-Malays, especially the Chinese. Caused British to appoint 2 Chinese education experts; Dr. W. P. Fenn and Dr. Wu Teh Yau to conduct research on the problem faced in the Chinese Education. The Fenn-Wu Report sympathises the Chinese school.

ESTABLISHMENT OF NES FENN - WU REPORT


a) b) c)

The report proposed that: Chinese language is to be made 3rd language in the schooling system. Vernacular schools must be continued. Education in the Chinese School must be based on Malaya.

ESTABLISHMENT OF NES 1952 EDUCATION ORDINANCE


Difference of suggestion between the Barnes Report & Fenn-Wu Report. British established a special committee to study both the reports. The report from the special committee combined suggestions from both reports prior to it and included under the 1952 Education Ordinance.

ESTABLISHMENT OF NES 1952 EDUCATION ORDINANCE


a)

The details of the ordinance were: 2 types of schools were established:Malay medium schools. English medium schools.

Facilities were provided to teach Chinese & Tamil. c) Chinese & Tamil schools not included under NES. d) English Language was taught from Standard 1 in Malay medium schools. e) Malay Language was taught from Standard 3 in the English medium schools.
b)

ESTABLISHMENT OF NES RAZAK STATEMENT 1956


In 1955, Alliance (Parti Perikatan) won the 1st general election. To prepare an education system for the independent Malaya, British established a committee to evaluate our countrys education system. The Committee was lead by Dato Abdul Razak Hussein, the Education Minister at that time. The Report of the committees proposal was known as Razak Statement 1956 (Laporan Razak).

ESTABLISHMENT OF NES RAZAK STATEMENT 1956


The suggestions contained in the report were: a) All children are given equal opportunity to obtain education. b) Only 1 education system is established NES. c) 2 types of schools were established: General School using Malay Language. General Vernacular School using English Language, Chinese or Tamil.

ESTABLISHMENT OF NES RAZAK STATEMENT 1956


d)
e)

f)
g)

Malay & English Language are made compulsory in all schools. Chinese & Tamil Language can be taught if there are 15 students and parents made applications. Assistance is given to all the schools. Secondary level schools were established: Malay Language medium National Secondary School, English language is compulsory. English Language Medium Vernacular Secondary School, Malay Language is compulsory.

ESTABLISHMENT OF NES RAZAK STATEMENT 1956


Primary Schools

Similar & Standardized Syllabus

National Type Schools Using Malay Language as medium of instruction.

National Vernacular Schools Using English, Mandarin, Tamil as medium of instruction.

*English Language is compulsory to all primary schools.

ESTABLISHMENT OF NES RAZAK STATEMENT 1956


Secondary Schools

Similar & Standardized Syllabus

National Type Schools Using Malay Language as medium of instruction.

National Vernacular Schools Using English Language as medium of instruction.

*Malay & English Language is compulsory to all secondary schools.

ESTABLISHMENT OF NES RAHMAN TALIB STATEMENT 1960 & EDUCATION ACT 1961
Rahman Talib Statement was produced in 1960 after re-evaluation on Razak Statement 1956. The proposal in the Rahman Talib Statement, was included under the Education Act 1961.

ESTABLISHMENT OF NES RAHMAN TALIB STATEMENT 1960 & EDUCATION ACT 1961
The details under the Education Act 1961 were: a) Primary School children are given opportunity to further their studies to secondary school. b) Free education at the national primary schools & national secondary schools. c) Schooling age is between 6 to 15 years. d) Those who fails in academic schools are offered to vocational schools agriculture, crafting and cooking.

ESTABLISHMENT OF NES RAHMAN TALIB STATEMENT 1960 & EDUCATION ACT 1961
2 types of schools were established: national schools & vernacular schools. b) Curriculum & examinations were standardised in all national schools & vernacular schools. c) Malay Language as national language was taught in primary schools substituting English Language as language medium. d) Chinese & Tamil Language can be taught if there are 15 students and applications from parents. e) Islamic Studies should be taught if there are 15 students.
a)

ESTABLISHMENT OF NES RAHMAN TALIB STATEMENT 1960 & EDUCATION ACT 1961
The transformation of English Language to Malay Language as language medium is conducted in Peninsular in 1970. Education Act 1961 is then expanded to Sabah and Sarawak in 1976. Therefore, a national education system has been developed.

NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION CABINET COMMITTEE


The National Education Policy Implementation Evaluation Cabinet Committee was established in 1974 which was chaired by Dr. Mahathir Mohamad to evaluate the education policy. The committees report, which was known as Mahathirs Report, was produced in 1979.

NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION CABINET COMMITTEE


The report suggested that: a) Education should fulfil the work forces need especially in the area of science and technology. b) Education must fulfil the requirement of development of good values. As a result: a) New Integration Curriculum of Primary School (KBSR) - launched in 1983 b) New Integration Curriculum of Secondary School (KBSM) - introduced in 1988.

RUKUN NEGARA
Introduced on 31 August 1970. Formed by National Negotiation Council with the aim of cultivating national integration as result of the outburst of the 13th May 1969 event. It is hoped to shape peoples personality as a Malaysian race. Was made as the nations ideology similar to Pancasila in Indonesia and Declaration of Independence in United States.

RUKUN NEGARA
1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Rukun Negara has 5 principles: Belief in God Loyalty to King and Country Upholding the Constitution Rule of Law Morality and Good Behaviour

RUKUN NEGARA
1st principle = Formal religion is Islam, but other religions can be practised freely. By leading a religious life, the people will inculcate good moral values such as honesty, patience, loyalty, helpful etc. 2nd principle = HRH is the symbol of the nations dignity, unity and peoples freedom. All the people in this country must be loyal to King. Status of the Malay Rulers cannot be questioned.

RUKUN NEGARA
3rd principle = Constitution is the highest law in the country and it guarantees the right of all the people. Everyone must respect the Constitution. This principle also means that the people must respect the law approved by the provision in the Constitution. 4th principle = Laws are dignified regulations as the approval was through the provisions under the Constitution. People have similarities or equal status. The people should adhere to the laws of the country.

RUKUN NEGARA
5th principle = People should posses good behaviour which are well-respected, honest, trustworthy, loyalty, co-operative, tolerance etc. Such attributes will cultivate the togetherness & harmony in the country to ensure the countrys peace.