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Dian LOGO Anggraeni Zulkarnain, M.Si


 Marketing Public Relations = Marketing Communications ?

.is part of the promotion mix

.is part of marketing mix

Perkembangan Praktik Public Relations

Public Relations



Application Functions: Media Relations Newsletter/Internal Media Communications Special Events Speaking Engagement Sponsorship Employee Relations Community Relations and Philantrophy Market Monitoring Crisis Management

Marketing Communications
Marketing Communications

Corporate Identity



Application Functions: Personal Selling Sales Promotions Public Relations and Publicity Direct Marketing Trade Fairs and Exhibitions Advertising ( ATL and BTL) Sponsorship Packaging Merchandizing E- Marketing / E-Commerce Branding Copyright@DianZulkarnain2009

Corporate Communications
Corporate Communications




Application Functions: Image and Identity Corporate Advertising and Advocacy Media Relations Marketing Communications Financial Communications Employee Relations Community Relations and Corporate Philantrophy Government Relations Crisis Communications Copyright@DianZulkarnain2009

The Development of Communications and Public Relations Functions in Business Organizations:  Issues Management A long term approach to identifying and resolving issues before they become problems or crisis.  Strategic Management The process of evaluating all proposed actions by focusing on organizational goals, usually defines in short term contributions to the bottom line  Rationalist Management PR and business communications have consistently moved away from a relations orientation. Recognizing the limitations of mass communication and mass media and we resisted a shift from using mass media to more targeted media.  Shift to Relationship Building A return to the roots of human communication and persuasion that focuses on personal trust and mutual cooperation.
Laurie J. Wilson and Joseph D. Ogden: 2008: p.6

Societal Trends Affecting the Practice of Business, Communications, and Public Relations: 1. Increasingly segmented public require alternatives to traditional media channels for the dissemination of message 2. Dramatically escalating social problems that no longer affect only fringe or marginal groups in society 3. An increased reliance on organizational communicators to establish relationships with publics to mediate issues. 4. Business entities face a more knowledgeable and business-savvy public that demands corporate commitment of resources to solve the problems affecting the community, employees, and their families. 5. The publics control over access to information
Laurie J. Wilson and Joseph D. Ogden: 2008: p.7

Building Relationship With Public Relationship-based interaction among all members of a community to achieve individual and collective goals. 1. Long-range vision 2. Commitment to community, not just to profit 3. Importance of people 4. Cooperative problem solving 5. Relationship based on respect and trust
Laurie J. Wilson and Joseph D. Ogden: 2008: p.8

A Framework of Public Relations

Model Characteristic Press agentry/publicity Public Information Dissemination of Purpose Nature of communication Communication model Propaganda One way: complete truth not essential Source --> Receiver information One way: truth important Source Receiver Scientific persuasion Two way, imbalanced effects Source Receiver Mutual understanding Two way balanced effect Group Group Two-way asymetric Two-way symetric

with feedback to source

and vice versa

Nature of research

Little, counting house

Little, readability readership

Formative, evaluative attitude Edward L. Bernays

Formative, evaluative of understanding Bernays of educators professional leaders

Leading historical figures

P.T. Barnum

Ivy Lee

Where praciced today

Sports, theatre, product promotion

Government, NGO business

Competitive business, agencies

Regulated business, agencies

Estimated percentage of organizations practicing today





Grunig and Hunt (1984)

Five Functions of Public Relations

 Press relations Presenting news and information about the organization in the most positive light  Product publicity Sponsoring efforts to publicize specific product  Corporate communications Promoting understanding of the organization through internal and external communications  Lobbying Dealing with legislators and government officials to promote or defeat legislation and regulation  Counseling - Advising management about public issues and company positions and image during good times and bad.

Philip Kotler and Kevin Lane Keller: 2006;p.551

Major Tools In Marketing Public Relations

 Publications Companies rely extensively on published materials to reach and influence their target markets. These include annual reports, brochures, articles, company newsletter and magazines, audiovisual  Events Companies can draw attention to new product or other company activities by arranging special events like news conferences, seminars, outing, trade shows, exhibits, contests and competitions, and anniversaries that will reach the target publics  Sponsorships Companies can promote their brands and corporate name by sponsoring sports and cultural events and highly regarded causes.  News One of the major tasks of PR professionals is to find or create favorable news about the company, its products, and its people, and get the media to accept press release and attend the press conferences

Major Tools In Marketing Public Relations

 Speeches Increasingly, company executives must field questions from the media or give talks at trade associations or sales meetings, and these appearance can build the companys image  Public-Service Activities Companies can build goodwill by contributing money and time to good causes  Identity Media Company need a visual identity that the public immediately recognizes. The visual identity is carried by company logos, stationary, brochures, signs, business cards, buildings, uniforms, and dress code.

Philip Kotler and Kevin Lane Keller: 2006;p.553

The Role of Marketing Public Relations

 Assisting in the launch of new products  Assisting in repositioning a mature product  Building interest in a product category  Influencing specific target groups  Defending product that have encountered public relations  Building the corporate image in a way that reflects favorably on its products.

Philip Kotler and Kevin Lane Keller: 2006;p.552

Understanding Marketing Communication

 Organizations engage with a variety of audiences in order to pursue their marketing and business objectives.  Effective communication is critically important to organizations  Marketing communication provides the means by which brands and organizations are presented to their audiences. The goal is to stimulate a dialogue that will ideally, lead to a succession of purchases. Complete engagement.  Marketing communication is an audience centered activity.

Defining Marketing Communication

Marketing communication is a management process through which an organizations engages with its audiences. By understanding an audiences communication environment, organizations seek to develop and present messages for its identified stakeholder group, before evaluating and acting upon the responses. By conveying messages that are of significant value, audiences, are encouraged to offer attitudinal and behavioral responses. (Chris Fill, 2006)

The Concept of Marketing As An Exchange

Two types of exchange represent the extremes in a spectrum of exchange transactions: Market exchanges (Bagozzi, 1978; Houston and Gassenheimer, 1987) are transactions that occur independently of any previous or subsequent exchanges. They have a short term orientation and are primarily motivated by self-interest. Relational exchanges (Dwyer et al., 1987) have a longer -term orientation and develop between parties who wish to build long term supportive relationships. Relational exchanges form the basis of the ideas represented in relationship marketing, manifest in the form of customer relationship marketing, or loyalty marketing programmes Marketing communication is considered to be means by which long-term relationships between organizations and between organizations and consumers are developed.

The Role of Communication in Exchange Transactions

. Communication plays an important role in the exchange of transactions: (Bowersox and Morash, 1989):  It can inform and make potential customers aware of an organizations offering  Communication may attempt to persuade current and potential customers of the desirability of entering into an exchange relationship.  Communication can also be used to reinforce experience  Marketing communication can act as a differentiator, particularly in the market where there is a little to separate competing products and brands

The DRIP Elements

DRIP element Examples -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Differentiate Burger King differentiate itself from market leader McDonalds by stating that its burger are flame grilled for a better taste. Specsavers Opticians work to bring people back into the eyecare


Informing/make aware

LG slim TV, inform and educate to use it as a minimalis product


So Good is better for us than ordinary milk

Marketing Communication and The Process of Exchanges

The exchange process, is developed and managed by researching consumer/stakeholders needs, identifying, selecting and targeting particular groups of consumers/stakeholders who share similar discriminatory characteristics, including needs and wants, and developing offering that satisfies the identified needs at sets of distribution cannels. Where competition or other impediments to positive consumer action exist, such as lack programme is developed and used to communicate with the targeted groups.

Case: Brand Icon LITTLE CHEF

Social forbes of obesity

Original Charlie with slight paunch

Proposed but rejected slimmed down Charlie

Little Chef, has used the brand icon of a chef called Charlie who has carried a discernible paunch since he first appearance in the 1970s. As part of an overall marketing strategy to provide guests with a healthy range of menu items, using less salt and more fruit, it was decided to slim Charlie down. Research results the public decided, quite emphatically, that Charlie should not be slimmed down

Case: brand icon MICHELIN MAN

The Original Michelin man

Revised, toned and accepted Michelin man

The Michelin Man used to drink and smoke before social pressures forced out of these habits. In 1998 he lost weight as well in an effort to avoid unattractive associations. These changes can also be interpreted by the public as a measure of an organizations image and reputation

The Tools and Position of the Marketing Communication Mix

Sales Promotions Media Direct Marketing


Target Audiences Media Public Relations

Personal Selling


The Developing Orientation of Marketing Communication

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------orientation Explanation
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Information and Promotion Communication are used to persuade people into product purchase using mass media communication. Emphasis on rational, product based information Communication are used to influence the different stages of the purchase process that customers experiences. A range of tools is used. Emphasis on product imagery and emotional feelings. Communication resources are used I an effective and efficient way to enable customers to have clear view of the brand proposition brand. Emphasis on strategy, media neutrality and a balance between rational and emotional communication. Communication is used as an integral part of the different relationship that organizations share with customers. Emphasis on mutual value and meaning plus a recognition of the different communication needs and processing styles of different stakeholder groups.

Process and imagery



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