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Waste :- Any material which is not needed by the owner, producer or processor.

Classification:

Domestic waste Factory waste Waste from oil factory E-waste Construction waste Agricultural waste Food processing waste Bio-medical waste Nuclear waste

E-waste- discarded electronic devices like computer, TV, music systems etc. Plastic waste- plastic bags, bottles, buckets etc. Metal waste- unused metal sheet, metal scraps etc. Nuclear waste- unused materials from nuclear power plants Domestic waste- vegetable waste, kitchen waste, household waste

      

Waste generation. Waste handling and sorting. Storage and processing at the source. Collection of wate. Sorting, processing and transformation(Recycling) Transfer and transport. Disposal.

(a) Waste minimisation / reduction at source, (b) Recycling (c) Waste processing (with recovery of resources i.e. materials (products) and energy) (d) Waste transformation (without recovery of resources) and (e) Disposal on land (landfilling).

These guidelines are written to collect and assess the information on solid waste management (SWM) practices including regulations and economic tools, institutions and resources, coverage of the services and technology, and role of various stakeholders The goal of data collection on solid waste (quantification and characterization of various waste streams) and existing management systems (collection, transportation, treatment, disposal, recycling and recovery) is to develop an integrated solid waste management plan. ISWM with respect to three perspectives, viz.: lifecycle, waste generation and waste management.

1. 2. 3.

The first concept of ISWM is based on lifecycle assessment of a product from its production and consumption point of view Fig. The reduction in consumption, and utilization of discarded products within the production system as a substitute for new resources, can lead to reduced end-of-cycle waste generation; thus, less efforts and resources would be required for the final disposal of the waste.

It is based on its generation from different sources including domestic, commercial, industrial and agriculture. This waste could be further classified as hazardous and non-hazardous waste (Figure ). The former has to be segregated at source and treated for disposal in accordance with the strict regulations. 3R approach (reduce, reuse and recycle) is applicable both at source as well as at the different levels of solid waste management chain including collection, transportation, treatment and disposal.

It is based on its management (Figure) which includes regulations and laws, institutions, financial mechanisms, technology and infrastructure, and role of various stakeholders in the solid waste management chain.

If there is more than one management system to handle solid waste, either from different generators or different types of solid waste (hazardous and non-hazardous), then the individual systems should be analyzed separately and the data so obtained could be compared to see their similarities and differences. For general purpose, the guidelines classify solid waste management in three systems, viz.: municipal solid waste, industrial solid waste, and hazardous solid waste. However, there might be fewer or more systems available in a particular city or country. To analyze solid waste management systems, the data and information is required to be collected on the following aspects: Policies Institutions Financing mechanisms Technology Stakeholder participation

o o o o o

1.Laws and Acts 2.Regulations 3.Economic Instruments 4.Enforcement 1.Laws and Acts:I. Environmental Protection Law/Act II. Hazardous Waste Management Law/Act III. Recycling or Resource Recovery Law/Act IV. Clean Air Act Incineration, Landfill gases V. Public Services Act Solid Waste Management . 2 Regulations

2 Regulations :-

I. Regulations on production and consumption upstream measures II. Regulations on segregation of recyclable and nonrecyclable waste III. Regulations on electronics waste IV. Regulations pertaining to extended producers responsibility V. Regulations on handling of hazardous waste VI. Regulations on collection and transportation of industrial waste VII. Regulations on construction and operation of landfills VIII. Regulations on construction and operation of incinerators IX. Regulations on construction and operation of composting plant

3.Economic Instruments :I. Levy on use of fresh resources in industrial production II. Subsidies for recycling in industrial production III. Volume-based solid waste fee on non-recyclable waste IV. Penalties on hazardous waste V. Subsidies for resource recovery, including powergeneration at landfill 4.Enforcement :Enforcement becomes the most crucial aspect of policies for SWM as they could only make a difference if these are properly enforced at all levels. Therefore, an assessment of the level of enforcement is vital. But it can become a challenging task as the criteria or benchmarks to ascertain the level of enforcement may not be available and the opinion on the enforcement levels may differ within the different stakeholders2. Hence, the opinions from all the major stakeholders should be sought to get a comparatively appropriate assessment.

Traditionally solid waste management was the responsibility of local governments. However, with the increasing rate of solid waste from diversified, unconventional sources (like industries and laboratories respectively), and awareness and regulations (for recycling and recovery, hazardous waste management and source reduction by intervening at production and consumption level), various institutions got involved into one or more aspects of solid waste management chain. This transition from public to private institutions for undertaking various public utilities and services demanded governments to establish strong regulatory institutions to make sure that the service providers deliver effective and efficient services. There may be more than one institution involved at the same level or for the same type of activity, for example, informal and formal sector for recycling or public and private sector for collection and transportation of municipal waste.

User charges Penalty, fine and levy Environmental Bonds Environmental Fund Direct Loans International Cooperation National subsidies Annual budget Private Sector Participation (PSP)

i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Primary collection and transfer stations Transportation Treatment Final Disposal Recycling and Recovery

Appropriate method of on- site storage. Appropriate method of bulk storage of waste. Approprate method of primary collection of waste. Appropriate method of transportation of waste using Geographical Information System (GIS). Appropriate method of waste disposal. Financial expenditure on whole solid waste management plan.

Stakeholder participation is becoming an essential part of SWM. Major stakeholders include waste generators, regulators, service providers such as organizations involved in waste collection and disposal, and organizations involved in recycling and recovery. Each stakeholder has a specific, clear and active role to improve the efficacy and efficiency of SWM by active participation and continuous interaction. Waste generators - traditionally considered as passive partners - have a major responsibility to reduce, segregate, and properly discard the waste as per the regulations. A close cooperation would be required between waste generators and waste collectors to increase the coverage and effectiveness of the waste collection system, proper disposal of waste, and recycling and recovery of materials. Furthermore, with rapid changes in quantity and composition of solid waste, regulatory organizations or governments have to be in continuous dialogue with the stakeholders to introduce appropriate regulations which can help bring the required improvements in SWM system.

1. Refuse - Instead of buying new containers from the market, use the ones that are in the house. Refuse to buy new items though you may think they are prettier than the ones you already have. 2. Reuse - Do not throw away the soft drink cans or the bottles; cover them with homemade paper or paint on them and use them as pencil stands or small vases. Alternately, you can store them and sell it to the kabariwalla who takes these for recycling. Reuse the plastic bags for shopping again and again. It is better if you use shopping bags made of cloth or jute, which can be used over and over again. 3. Recycle - Segregate your wastes so that non-perishable wastes are easily collected and taken for recycling. Dig a small pit to compost your organic wastes like kitchen wastes at your home. 4. Reduce - Reduce the generation of unnecessary waste, e.g. carry your own shopping bag when you go to the market and put all your purchases directly into it.

TECHNOLOGIES FOR DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE:Composting Vermi Composting Sanitary Landfills and Landfill Gas Recovery Incineration

TECHNOLOGIES AVAILABLE FOR PROCESSING,TREATMENT:Anaerobic Digestion & Biomethanation (Biogas Plant ) Production of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or Pelletization Pyrolysis/Gasification, Plasma Pyrolysis Vitrification(PPV)/Plasma Arc Process Biomass gasifier-based power generation system(Biomass Power Plant)

Apathy of Municipal Authorities Absence of Community Participation No Storage of Waste at Source No System of Primary Collection from the Doorstep Irregular Street Sweeping Processing of Waste Disposal of Waste Waste Storage Depots

Education & voluntary compliance Collection of waste Technological interventions Institutions & regulatory framework Absence of mandatory standards for waste reduction Market action for waste reduction
Source: The Energy & Resources Institute

There are two things certain in life one is death and the other is waste as said by a waste plant operator, accurately sums up the waste scenario in urban India. The findings of the project indicate that sustainability of a decentralized waste treatment option can be achieved with adequate municipal and residential support and the dedicated efforts of those people involved in the actual running of the operation.

Teri ISWM plan For UN vol.2 http://www.teriin.org/ http://www.mnre.gov.in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ India Infrastructure magzine 2008 GIS from Asansol municipality Chapter-2 PRINCIPLES OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SWM Prakriti, Centre for Management Studies, Dibrugarh University