Computer and Internet Basics

By:Sangeetha

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Objectives
Define Computers Explore Computer Functions Categorize Computers Examine Personal Computer Systems Explore Data, Information, and Files
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Objectives
Introduce Application and System Software Define Internet Basics Connect to the Internet Understand World Wide Web Basics Use Browsers Understand E-mail Basics EUnderstand some current Internet terminology
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A Computer is a device that
accepts input processes data stores data produces output
(all according to a series of stored instructions)
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Computer Functions
Input

‡Words, symbols, numbers, sound, pictures, program instructions

‡Program calculates, sorts modifies data Process ‡Uses microprocessor or CPU
Output

‡Results of processing ‡Reports, graphs, documents, pictures ‡Printer or monitor ‡Memory is temporary holding area (RAM) ‡Storage is permanent (disk)
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Store

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Computer system consists of: Hardware: microprocessor Peripheral devices: input and output Software: programs 7 .

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Computer Network Two or more computers that are connected and share data and programs LAN is a Local Area Network WAN is a Wide Area Network 9 .

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Categorizing Computers Cost Usage Size Capability 11 .

Computers to Fit Every Need Five basic categories ± Mobile devices ± Personal computers ± Midrange servers ± Mainframe computers ± Supercomputers 12 .

13 .Mobile Devices Very small computing devices. Many can be used to access e-mail and Web pages. Usually based on a wireless phone or pager.

Less Powerful Computers ‡Handheld computer/PDA ‡PC/microcomputer ‡Workstations ‡Videogame console ±Sony PlayStation® PlayStation® 14 .

expensive.More Powerful Computers Server ± Supplies network computers with data Mainframe ± Large. central control important Supercomputer ± Fastest and most powerful 15 . powerful. data security. many users ± Reliability.

Can use: ± Desktop case ± Tower case ± All-in-one case All-in- 16 .Personal Computers. Desktop computers²small enough computers² to fit on or next to a desk. Cont¶d.

Portable PCs²designed to be PCs² carried around. ± Notebook computers ± Tablet PCs (either slate or convertible) ± Handheld computers (pocket computers) 17 .Personal Computers. Cont¶d.

Portable Computer Variety 18 .

PCs designed for just network use are referred to as network computers (NCs) or thin clients.Personal Computers. Devices designed just for Internet access are called Internet appliances. 19 . clients. appliances. Cont¶d.

Midrange Servers MediumMedium-sized computers. computers. Fall between microcomputers and mainframes in processing power. 20 . also called minicomputers or midrange computers.

Specialize in high-volume processing of highbusiness transactions. 21 .Mainframe Computers Standard choice for most large organizations. Also called high-end highservers or enterpriseenterpriseclass servers.

Offer very fast speeds and extreme degrees of accuracy.Supercomputers Used for applications that have extraordinary demands for processing power. Commonly created today by connecting hundreds of smaller computers to form a supercomputing cluster. 22 .

Computer System Peripherals Computer + input devices + output devices + storage devices 23 .

System Unit Power Supply Storage Devices Circuit Boards 24 .

Input/Output Devices Monitor Keyboard Mouse Modem Printer Speakers/sound card 25 .

Storage Devices Floppy disk drive Hard disk drive CDCD-ROM drive DVD drive CD writer DVD writer USB (Universal Series Bus) 26 .

Data vs. Information Data (symbols) used by computers Information (meaningful) used by people 27 .

28 . Application software performs specific tasks or applications. System software allows a computer to operate and run application software.Software The programs or instructions used to tell the computer hardware what to do.

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± Can be in the form of text.Data and Information Data = raw. Information = data that has been processed into a useful form. text. audio. graphics. graphics. audio. 30 . or video. unorganized facts.

Data Binary number system to define electronic data 0 or 1 Bit Byte (8 bits) (8 Kilobyte (1064 b) (1064 Megabyte (1064 kb) (1064 Gigabyte (1064 Mb) (1064 Terabyte (1064 Gb) (1064 31 .

etc.doc 32 . bat) Filename and extension Image.Files Collection of data on a storage medium Data file (dat.exe Resume.jpg Word.) Executable file (exe.

Mac OS ± Handhelds: Windows CE and Palm OS ± Servers: Linus and UNIX 33 .System Software Helps the computer monitor itself in order to function efficiently Operating system ± Master controller of all computer activities Popular operating systems ± PCs: Microsoft Windows.

etc. Linux.) 34 .Platform Microprocessor + Operating system Mac and PC compatibility is an issue Apple computer = Mac platform IBM or PC computer = Windows. GNU.

Application Software Microsoft Excel Microsoft PowerPoint Designed to carry out a particular task 35 .

36 . regional.Internet Basics Internet is a collection of local. national and international computer networks that are linked together to exchange data and distribute processing tasks.

Internet Terminology Backbone: defines main Internet routes ± Constructed and maintained by major telecommunications companies TCP/IP: ± Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol 37 .

Internet Terminology Server software IP Address: unique Address: number for each Internet computer Packets: Packets: small chunks of data ready to travel the Internet Router: Router: helps send along the packets to correct destination 38 .

Internet Resources Internet Telephony Usenet E-commerce Instant Messaging Web Sites E-mail Internet Radio Download Or Upload Chat Groups 39 P2P file sharing .

Modem Internet Connections DialDial-up connection via modem (56K) 56K) Cable modems ± Network card and cable modem required ± Always-on and 25 times faster than dial-up Alwaysdial- 40 .

Faster Internet Connections ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) ± 64K or 128K 64K 128K ± Always-on and expensive Always- DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) ± Up to 125 times faster than dialup DSS (Digital Satellite Service) ± 500K 500K Fiber Optics Need proximity to a telephone switching station 41 .

Internet Service Provider (ISP) Provides internet access to businesses. organizations and individuals Provides telecommunications equipment User ID and password required Connects you to backbone E-mail account monthly fee Should have local access telephone numbers 42 .

World Wide Web Basics Files interconnected via hypertext Web pages make up a web site Home Page Links or hyperlinks Web servers 43 .

htm or .htm Web protocol standard Web server name Folder name Document name and filename 44 extension .cnn.html file extension http://www.com/showbiz/movies.World Wide Web Basics URL ± No spaces and Case sensitive ± HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) ± .

Search Engines Keywords 45 .

Using Browsers Can type URLs HTML tags tell browser how to display web page data Back. forward and stop buttons Setting a home page Print and copy options History list Favorites and bookmarks Edit and Find Microsoft Internet Explorer® and Netscape Navigator® 46 .

E-mail Basics Account = Mailbox Message userid@computer Attachment Most use HTML format Netiquette 47 .

E-mail System E-mail servers Store-andStore-and-forward technology Types ± POP (Post Office Protocol) used via ISP ± IMAP (Internet Messaging Access Protocol) ± Web-based like Hotmail Web- 48 .

E-mail System 49 .

bmp.) (MP3 Video (MP4. etc. mpeg.) Music (MP3. Rar. DivX. wmv. flv. wma. etc. etc. Tiff. mov.Conversion Software File Compression (Zip. midi. wav. (MP4 avi.) Picture (jpg. jif. etc.) 50 .

Adobe Acrobat Reader Flash FLV 51 .

Podcasting and RSS A podcast is a series of digital media files. news headlines. family of web feed formats used to publish frequently updated works²such works² as blog entries. is a Syndication. that is made available for download via the Internet or web syndication RSS: Really Simple Syndication. usually either digital audio or video. audio. and video²in a standardized format video² 52 .

Instead of downloading an entire file. who then users. 53 . Napster.Torrents A popular file sharing service developed that allows people to download constantly in small packets. torrent software breaks a file into chunks and distributes them among all participating users. BitComet. Azureus. etc. share the download/ upload task Limewire.

Internet Slang or Netlingo LOL ± Laugh Out Loud ROFL ± Rolling on Floor Laughing BRB ± Be Right Back BTW ± By The Way FYI ± For Your Information Emoticons ie: :) :( .) :-) :54 .

com Flickr Blogging (eg Livejournal) 55 .Social Networking Facebook Twitter MySpace Classmates.

56 .Computer and Internet Basics Thank U..

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