1. The model of communicative competence: the bases of communicative approaches to L2 language teaching-founded by Canale and Swain (1980) and expanded by Canale (1983)- an integrative theoretical framework with four main competencies: grammatical, sociolinguistics, strategic, and discourse competence.

The description of the relationship among them: the model of communicative competence by Savignon (1983). rules of pronunciation and spelling. word formation and sentence structure) ‡ sociolinguistic competence: the knowledge of the sociocultural rules of use in particular context ‡Strategic competence: the knowledge of how to use verbal and nonverbal communication strategies to handle breakdown in communication ‡Discourse competence: the knowledge of achieving coherence and cohesion in a spoken or written text. adopted the shape of inverted pyramid to show how an increase in only one component produces in the overall level of communicative competence. 2.‡ grammatical competence: the knowledge of the language code (vocabulary. because all components are interrelated to each other communicative competence construct .

‡ Language competence: ‡ ‡ organizational competence (grammatical competence and textual competence) pragmatic competence (illocutionary competence. strategic competence.‡ Critics: ‡ ‡ Pragmatic competence was explicitly considered as the component of communicative competence No attention was paid to the key role of four skills in the framework ‡ Bachman (1987) developed a model of communicative language ability: language competence. the knowledge of pragmatic conventions for performing acceptable language functions and sociolinguistic competence. and psychomotor skills. the knowledge of the sociolinguistic conventions for performing language functions appropriately in a given context ‡ ‡ Strategic competence: allowing language users to employ the elements depending on the context to negotiate meaning Psychomotor skills or psychophysiological mechanisms(Bachman 1990): receptive (oral or visual) and productive mode (aural or visual) in which the competence is performed through a particular type of channel .

e. Dörnyei. lexical resources (i. . collocations or phrases related to conversational structure). ‡Finally. and Thurrell (1995) ‡ start with the core (discourse competence): the selection and sequencing of sentences to achieve a unified text. phonological and orthographic systems. strategic competence.Celce-Murcia. ‡Actional competence involves the understanding of the speakers communicative intent by performing and interpreting speech act sets. ‡Linguistic competence entails the basic elements of communication as sentence patterns. which is concerned with the knowledge of communication strategies and how to use them. formulaic constructions. these four components are influenced by the last one.. morphological inflections. This model thus provides a clear picture of the interrelationship among all the components. ‡Sociocultural competence refers to the speaker s knowledge of how to express appropriate messages within the social and cultural context of communication in which they are produced. spoken or written.

and Thurrell (1995). speaking. and 3) strategic competence is an important component in its own right that incorporates both communication and learning strategies. reading and writing). Dörnyei. Three aspects of Alcón s (2000) model are of particular interest: 1) discourse competence is the core of the model. 2) an explicit function is given to the four psychomotor skills (speaking. which is a hybrid of the models proposed by Bachman (1990) and Celce-Murcia. . which are interrelated to one another in order to use the language for communicative purposes. reading and writing. Alcón (2000) suggests that discourse competence influences the abilities of listening. it is our view that these competencies should be considered separately. However.Alcón (2000) also proposes a model of communicative competence. given the increasing recognition nowadays associated to cultural aspects. although it may be assumed that Alcón (2000) includes sociolinguistic . listening.

attitudes and behaviors that are used to subjectively interpret other people s actions and patterns of thinking. attitudes and expectations of representatives of foreign cultures. ‡ This competence by Meyer (1991: 137): the ability of a person to behave adequately in a flexible manner when confronted with actions. ‡ Foreign language learners should become aware of different cultural aspects if they are to make an appropriate interpretation of the target language. beliefs.Cortazzi and Jin (1999): culture is a wide framework of values. . given the need to integrate the teaching of intercultural communicative skills as part of classroom instruction. ‡ To foster L2 learners knowledge of the skills required to be successful in intercultural communication the development of intercultural communicative competence should be included within a communicative approach for L2 teaching. Byram (1997) proposed a model of intercultural communicative competence.

discourse. intercultural and strategic. This construct aims at 1) showing the relationship among all the components 2) incorporating both the pragmatic and the Intercultural competencies on their own 3) highlighting the function of the four skills to build discourse competence. namely. pragmatic. . linguistic.A proposed framework of communicative competence integrating the four skills The proposed framework contains five components which appear inside rectangular boxes of the same size.

L in guistic com pe ten c e S trategic com p etence Discourse com p etence Pragm atic com p etence Intercultural compe tence .

e. Byram s (1997: 48.. reading and writing) is explicitly accomplished within the core of our proposed framework. Linguistic competence not only refers to the grammatical competence but also includes all the elements in the linguistic system which involve the phonology. listening. speaking. italics ours) definition of discourse as the ability to use. discover and negotiate strategies for the production and interpretation of monologue or dialogue texts which follow the conventions of the culture of an interlocutor or are negotiated as intercultural texts for particular purposes. .Discourse competence refers to the selection and sequencing of utterances or sentences to achieve a cohesive and coherent spoken or written text the integration of the four skills (i. grammar and vocabulary aspects illustrated in Celce-Murcia and Olshtain s (2000) work.

and Thurrell (1995). Sociolinguistic types of knowledge: knowledge of sociopragmatic factors such as participant and situational variables as well as politeness Issues (components included in the sociocultural competence developed by Celce-Murcia. Dörnyei. and Thurrell (1995). knowledge of dialects and cross-cultural awareness) and non-verbal communicative factors (body language.Pragmatic competence: 1 illocutionary (the knowledge needed to perform language functions and speech act sets). Intercultural competence involves both cultural (sociocultural knowledge of the target language community. Dörnyei. similar to the actional competence proposed by Celce-Murcia. touching or silence) . use of space. 2.

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