Mixers for pastes

y Mixing : Process where two or more substances enter a

chamber where they are combined.
y Method used : Stirring or agitation y The type of mixer used depends on:

The nature of the substances to be mixed Level of mixing that is required

Mixers for Cohesive Solids
Properties of cohesive solids :
y Enormously high viscosity y No flow currents generated .Instead mixing elements can only shear, fold, stretch and compress the material to be mixed. y Bulk densities, particle shapes, and flow characteristics can affect energy requirements. y Friction is an extremely important design consideration in the mixing of non-liquids. Excessive temperatures from friction can also cause product degradation and the creation of unwanted side products or off gases.

Design criterion for Paste Mixers
y Clearances between mixing arms, rotors and wall of casing all small. y The forces generated in these mixers are large y The machinery must be ruggedly built. y Power consumption is high. y They depend on the actual objective for mixing like Heating, Size reduction , Homogeneity of aggregates, Coating of particles, Kneading. y The agitator must be designed so as to physically contact all of the substance in the mixer.

‡Blends viscous liquids or light pastes
‡food processing and paint manufacture

‡Can Capacity is usually 5-100 gallons. ‡Agitator consists of vertical blades or fingers . ‡Blades are slightly twisted.

Pony mixer
Vessel(can) rotates in the direction opposite to the agitator. Agitator is mounted eccentrically with respect to can-axis.

Beater mixer
The can or Vessel is stationary. Agitator has a planetary motion , sort of gyration or spiraling motion. 6

Pony mixer

Beater mixer

Image source : Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, MCCABE SMITH HARRIOT


Kneaders ,Dispersers and Masticators
y Kneading Mixing used with deformable or plastic solids y Involves squashing the mass, folding it over and squashing it again y Kneader Handles suspensions, pastes and light plastics y Shredding cotton liners in Cellulose Acetate formation y Disperser Heavier in construction and higher power consumption y Stiffens Additives and Colouring agents y Masticator - Still heavier and Consumes more power y Disintegrates scrap rubber and can compound toughest plastic possible y Also known as intensive mixers


Kneader Mixer


http://www.primemachinery.com/mixers/mixers.htm http://www.draiswerke-inc.com/planetary.htm


‡Mixing is usually done by two heavy blades on parallel shafts ‡ Vessel has a saddle-shaped bottom. ‡The mass is sheared in between the blade and the wall, at saddle point.

Image source : Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, MCCABE SMITH HARRIOT 

Heat generated during the mixing action is removed by spraying cool water on the walls of mixing chamber. 10

Continuous Kneaders
y Used for continuous operation on relatively larger amounts of material. y A horizontal shaft with rows of teeth arranged in a spiral pattern rotates to move the material in a chamber. y There is also a set of stationary teeth set in the wall of the casing. y Material is smeared in an axial or longitudinal direction in addition to a radial shear. y These machines can mix several tons per hour of heavy, stiff or gummy materials.

Mixer extruders
y The discharge opening of a continuous kneader is covered with an extrusion die to build up considerable pressure in the material y They contain one or two horizontal shafts rotating but not reciprocating carrying a helical pattern of blades. y They continuously mix ,compound , and work thermoplastics, doughs, clays,and other hard-to-mix materials. y Some carry a heating jacket to permit removal of water or solvent from the material as it is being processed.

Mixing rolls
y Material passes through smooth metal rolls turning at different speeds y Contain three to five horizontal rolls set one above the other in a vertical stack. y The paste moves from slower to faster rolls. y Additives are sprinkled on the material as it is worked y Require long mixing times and hence have largely been replaced by internal mixers and continuous kneaders.


Muller Mixers
y Mulling is smearing or rubbing action y Similar to the action in a mortar or pestle y Good mixers for batches of heavy solids and pastes y Effective in uniformly coating particles of granular solids with a small amount of liquid


Pug mill
y Mixing is done by blades set in helical pattern y Materials are simultaneously ground and mixed with

liquid y Fast continuous mixer y Built with jackets for heating or cooling y Factors affecting mixing or residence time are
y y

Number and size of paddles Size of mixing chamber and length of pugmill floor etc.

y Industrial application in cement, brick, pottery etc.

Mixer Effectiveness
y Performance is judged by time required, power load

and properties of product. y Mixing Index I is the criteria for mixing effectiveness y For batch mixing processes I is unity and increases as mixing proceeds y Muller mixtures give
y High limiting value of I on sandy granular solids y Low values with plastic or sticky pastes

y I is related to physical properties of the mixed material y Strength of mixture I

y Unit operations of chemical engineering

Authors : McCabe , Smith, Harriott Publication : McGraw Hill International y Search engines: Google Yahoo y Websites: www.draiswerke-inc.com/planetary www.primemachinery.com/mixers/mixers



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