1

Mixers for pastes
PRESENTED BY CH09B024 - JOSHIBA A V CH09B025 - KARTHIK SHANDILYA CH09B026 ² KARTHIKEYA KABRA CH09B028 ² KRISHNA DHEERAJ
2

Introduction
y Mixing : Process where two or more substances enter a

chamber where they are combined.
y Method used : Stirring or agitation y The type of mixer used depends on:

The nature of the substances to be mixed Level of mixing that is required
3

Mixers for Cohesive Solids
Properties of cohesive solids :
y Enormously high viscosity y No flow currents generated .Instead mixing elements can only shear, fold, stretch and compress the material to be mixed. y Bulk densities, particle shapes, and flow characteristics can affect energy requirements. y Friction is an extremely important design consideration in the mixing of non-liquids. Excessive temperatures from friction can also cause product degradation and the creation of unwanted side products or off gases.
4

Design criterion for Paste Mixers
y Clearances between mixing arms, rotors and wall of casing all small. y The forces generated in these mixers are large y The machinery must be ruggedly built. y Power consumption is high. y They depend on the actual objective for mixing like Heating, Size reduction , Homogeneity of aggregates, Coating of particles, Kneading. y The agitator must be designed so as to physically contact all of the substance in the mixer.
5

‡Blends viscous liquids or light pastes
‡food processing and paint manufacture

‡Can Capacity is usually 5-100 gallons. ‡Agitator consists of vertical blades or fingers . ‡Blades are slightly twisted.

Pony mixer
Vessel(can) rotates in the direction opposite to the agitator. Agitator is mounted eccentrically with respect to can-axis.

Beater mixer
The can or Vessel is stationary. Agitator has a planetary motion , sort of gyration or spiraling motion. 6

Pony mixer

Beater mixer

Image source : Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, MCCABE SMITH HARRIOT

7

Kneaders ,Dispersers and Masticators
y Kneading Mixing used with deformable or plastic solids y Involves squashing the mass, folding it over and squashing it again y Kneader Handles suspensions, pastes and light plastics y Shredding cotton liners in Cellulose Acetate formation y Disperser Heavier in construction and higher power consumption y Stiffens Additives and Colouring agents y Masticator - Still heavier and Consumes more power y Disintegrates scrap rubber and can compound toughest plastic possible y Also known as intensive mixers

8

Kneader Mixer

Masticator

http://www.primemachinery.com/mixers/mixers.htm http://www.draiswerke-inc.com/planetary.htm

9

‡Mixing is usually done by two heavy blades on parallel shafts ‡ Vessel has a saddle-shaped bottom. ‡The mass is sheared in between the blade and the wall, at saddle point.

Image source : Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, MCCABE SMITH HARRIOT 

Heat generated during the mixing action is removed by spraying cool water on the walls of mixing chamber. 10

Continuous Kneaders
y Used for continuous operation on relatively larger amounts of material. y A horizontal shaft with rows of teeth arranged in a spiral pattern rotates to move the material in a chamber. y There is also a set of stationary teeth set in the wall of the casing. y Material is smeared in an axial or longitudinal direction in addition to a radial shear. y These machines can mix several tons per hour of heavy, stiff or gummy materials.
11

Mixer extruders
y The discharge opening of a continuous kneader is covered with an extrusion die to build up considerable pressure in the material y They contain one or two horizontal shafts rotating but not reciprocating carrying a helical pattern of blades. y They continuously mix ,compound , and work thermoplastics, doughs, clays,and other hard-to-mix materials. y Some carry a heating jacket to permit removal of water or solvent from the material as it is being processed.
12

Mixing rolls
y Material passes through smooth metal rolls turning at different speeds y Contain three to five horizontal rolls set one above the other in a vertical stack. y The paste moves from slower to faster rolls. y Additives are sprinkled on the material as it is worked y Require long mixing times and hence have largely been replaced by internal mixers and continuous kneaders.

13

Muller Mixers
y Mulling is smearing or rubbing action y Similar to the action in a mortar or pestle y Good mixers for batches of heavy solids and pastes y Effective in uniformly coating particles of granular solids with a small amount of liquid

14

Pug mill
y Mixing is done by blades set in helical pattern y Materials are simultaneously ground and mixed with

liquid y Fast continuous mixer y Built with jackets for heating or cooling y Factors affecting mixing or residence time are
y y

Number and size of paddles Size of mixing chamber and length of pugmill floor etc.

y Industrial application in cement, brick, pottery etc.
15

Mixer Effectiveness
y Performance is judged by time required, power load

and properties of product. y Mixing Index I is the criteria for mixing effectiveness y For batch mixing processes I is unity and increases as mixing proceeds y Muller mixtures give
y High limiting value of I on sandy granular solids y Low values with plastic or sticky pastes

y I is related to physical properties of the mixed material y Strength of mixture I
16

Bibliography
y Unit operations of chemical engineering

Authors : McCabe , Smith, Harriott Publication : McGraw Hill International y Search engines: Google Yahoo y Websites: www.draiswerke-inc.com/planetary www.primemachinery.com/mixers/mixers
17

THANK YOU

18

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.