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. The first film with Dolby sound was A Clockwork Orange (1971).BRIEF HISTORY OF DOLBY LABS Founded by Ray Dolby in Britain in 1965. The first product he made was Type A Dolby Noise Reduction. Dolby marketed the product to record companies. a simple compander. which used Dolby noise reduction.

TIMELINE OF IMPORTANT DOLBY INNOVATIONS In 1984. Dolby Pro Logic surround technology elevates the home cinema experience with fourchannel surround sound. In 1987. . In 2002.1-channel surround sound on a mobile phone using Dolby Mobile technology in 2010. Dolby releases Dolby AC-1. First public demonstration of 5. their first digital coding system. Dolby Virtual Speaker technology introduced.

Dolby Surround. Dolby Pro Logic. Dolby Stereo. aacPlus. Dolby Pulse. Dolby Virtual Speaker. Dolby SR (Spectral Recording). Dolby Headphone.TECHNOLOGIES Analog audio noise reduction y Dolby A/B/C/S-Type NR. and Dolby Pro Logic IIz Audio encoding/compression y Audio processing y Video processing Digital Cinema Live Sound . Dolby E. Dolby FM. Dolby Pro Logic IIx. AAC. Dolby HX Pro. Dolby Digital (also known as AC-3). Dolby TrueHD. Dolby Pro Logic II.

y For example. in which case the entire block is processed as single modified discrete cosine transform or short. a 5. in which case two half length transforms are performed on the block. . Channel blocks can be either long. each with a fixed number of 6 audio blocks.1 AC-3 bitstream contains 1536 samples per audio block (6 channels × 256 samples/channel).TECHNICAL DETAILS The data layout of AC-3 is described by simplified "C-like" language in official specifications. each audio block contains 256 audio samples per channel. An AC-3 stream is a series of frames.

.) Field Name syncword CRC Sampling frequency Frame Size Code Bit Stream Identification Bit Stream Mode Audio Coding Mode Center Mix level Surround Mix Level Dolby Surround Mode # of bits 16 16 2 6 5 3 3 2 2 2 '00'=not indicated '01'=Not surround encoded '10'=Yes.TECHNICAL DETAILS(CONTD.1 '00'=48 Description 0x0B77 Transmission of data is left bit first (big endian). right channel ordering '11'=reserved '10'=32 kHz '01'=44. '000'=main audio service '010'=left. surround encoded.

DOLBY DIGITAL Audio compression technologies developed by Dolby Laboratories. Blu-ray discs and game consoles. the audio compression is ´lossyµ. It was originally called Dolby Stereo Digital until 1994. . DVDs. Except for Dolby TrueHD. It is now also used for other applications such as TV broadcast.

To help protect your privacy. click Options in the Message Bar.STEREO/SURROUND PROCESSING 1. To download and display this picture. . PowerPoint prevented this external picture from being automatically downloaded. and then click Enable external content. 3. PowerPoint prevented this external picture from being automatically downloaded. click Options in the Message Bar. To download and display this picture. Stereo Enhancement Surround Enhancement Dolby Pro-Logic To help protect your privacy. 2. and then click Enable external content.

audio contents. and the degree of coherent of left-and right channels. .STEREO ENHANCEMENT Objective Expand the Sound Fields beyond the two speakers  Imitate Surround Sound Effects  Flexible with Environments and Audio Contents  Consideration Dialog Localization ( below 4 kHz)  Sweet Spots (1 -2kHz)  General Form L?= L + K1(L+R)) + K2(L-R) R?= R + K1(L+R)) -K2(L-R)  K is function of frequency. speaker distance.

Slope 18dB/Oct. (L-R)p: Processed difference signal. R-Eq.5 kHz. L-Eq.: Resonant at 1.) Spatializer Technique      Lout = L +CL Rout= R ²CR HP: cut-off at 300.: Resonant at 3kHzp SRS Technique Lout = L + K1(L+R)p+ K2(L-R) p  Rout= R + K1(L+R)p-K2(L-R) p  (L+ R)p: Processed sum signal.STEREO ENHANCEMENT (CONTD. .

There are specific objectives regarding the performance of home surround system. . additional information on the center dialog channel and surround channel is encoded into the two channel stereo signals and then decoded to result in four distinct output channels in the surround processor system like Dolby Surround. precise localization of specific sound events. natural ambience. such as good dialog intelligibility.SURROUND PROCESSING Synthesizes the additional sound channels to expand the output from the conventional two channels to four or five.  In order to fulfill the objectives. etc.

SURROUND PROCESSING (CONTD.) The three major components of the film sounds  Dialog: most important is desired to be directed to center loudspeaker and to be removed from left and right loudspeakers for the coincidence of visual screen and audio sound  Music mixed into the sound track come from front with some auditory event width  Effect sound originate from any direction .

DOLBY PRO-LOGIC What is Dolby Prologic? A process for encoding and decoding four independent channels of audio data into two channels for storage and transmission.  Dolby Pro-Logic is developed from surround sound reproduction technique for movie theaters. It is designed to improve localization by actively steering dominant audio information to its proper spatial location.  .

 Surround channel data is encoded as a difference between the left and right channel (L-R. band limited to 7 KHz and encoded with B-type noise reduction as well as delayed several milliseconds)  .) Active Surround Encoder Center channel is encoded as the sum of left and right channel.DOLBY PRO-LOGIC (CONTD.


DOLBY ENCODING MATRICES Dolby Surround Left Total Left Right Surround 1 0 0 1 Right Total Dolby Pro Logic Left Total Left Right Center Rear 1 0 0 1 Right Total Dolby Pro Logic II Left Total Right Total Left Right Center Rear Left Rear Right 1 0 0 1 .

as mandatory codecs.APPLICATIONS Dolby Digital audio is used on DVD-Video and other purely digital media. AAC outperforms MP3 at any bitrate. Dolby Digital Plus (DD-Plus) and TrueHD are supported in HD DVD. . such as digital TV. and considered the successor to MP3. and in Blu-ray Disc. but is more complex. The system is used in bandwidth-limited applications other than DVD-Video. like home cinema. In this format. as optional codecs. Dolby is part of a group of organizations involved in the development of AAC (Advanced Audio Coding). the AC-3 bitstream is interleaved with the video and control bitstreams. part of MPEG specifications.