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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT HOW PERSONALITY DEVELOPS?

Human personality development is a continuous process. It starts since the child is in fetal stage. Human personality develops with advancement in an individual s age passing through certain stages in a sequential order. At each stage, a person develops different aspects of personality .

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
There are two approaches to development of personality Stage approach consider specific physiological and psychological stages that occur in the development of human personality. Second approach tends to identify the important determinants of personality. The stage approach is theoretical in nature whereas determinants based approach is empirical in nature. The main contributors are Freud, Erikson, Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, et al

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

Freudian Stages Although the stages of personality development may be found in the writings of ancient Greek, it was Freud who developed a meaningful stage theory of personality Sigmund Freud s Psychoanalytical Theory is based on the notion that human behaviour is motivated more by unseen forces than by conscious and rational thought. According to Freud Personality develops as a result of four main stages of stress

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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Freudian Stages The sources of stress are Physical Growth Process, Frustration, Conflicts and Threats. These sources affect differently at each stage of life of a person and these stages can be classified into five categories: 1.Oral Stage 2.Anal Stage 3.Phallic Stage 4.Latency Stage 5. Genital Stage Freud believes that these stage are the main driving forces of Personality Development

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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

Oral Stage
 Oral Stage covers the period from birth to 18 months of age.  This period can be divided into two stages: Oral Sucking Stage Oral Biting Stage  In oral stage both needs and gratification primarily involve the lips, tongue and later the teeth.  Oral Sucking period is from birth to 8 months in which child satisfies his sexual instincts by sucking from mouth, tongue and lips

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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Oral Stage  the child in this condition is totally in id s

effect and driven by Pleasure Principle If he is not breast fed properly, he satisfies himself by sucking his thumb or fingers. After 8 months the mother starts weaning. If weaning is abruptly stopped, it creates disturbances in personality development.

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

Oral Stage Oral Biting starts at the age of 8 months and lasts up to 18 months Ego starts separating from id Denial of breast feeding at this stage create problems of personality development

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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Oral Stage Adults have well developed oral habits and a continued interest in maintaining oral pleasures. Sucking, eating, chewing, smoking, biting, and licking one s lips are physical expressions of these interests. Adult sarcasm, tearing at one s food and gossip have been described as being related to this development stage Oral gratification , if it is a dominant mode of gratification, i.e., if a person is excessively dependent on oral habits to relieve anxiety or tension unrelated to to hunger or thirst

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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

Anal Stage
This stage is from 18 months to 3 years The child satisfies his sexual instincts by urinating and defecating He expresses his anger by urinating or defecating in wrong places Ego is developed at this stage and the child understands that he is from a particular sex. At the later period of this stage he understands the necessity and social value of toilet control

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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Anal Stage- extends from 18 months to 7years  Toilet training given to the child by his parents will have its effect on adulthood. If the mother too harsh and repressive, the child withholds faeces, and if this becomes excessive, the child develops an anal retentive personality. When grown up, such personality expresses traits of obstinacy, stinginess, orderliness, punctuality, and extreme cleanliness or extreme messiness

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

Anal Stage
 If

the mother pleads with her child to have regular bowel movements and showers him with praise when he does, the child will develop anal aggressive structure. A person fixated at this level would show traits of cruelty, destructiveness, disorderliness and hostility.

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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Phallic Stage- extends from 3 to 7 years  at this stage the child discriminates genitals

The sexual instincts is satisfied by touching sex organs and expressing interest in matters of birth and sex. Freud observed that during this period both males and females develop fears about sexual issues. The child is developing jealous about the intimacy that the parents share with each other. Children reacting to parents as potential threats to the potential fulfillment of their needs.

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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Phallic Stage If the boy is not getting proper attention from his father, he develops a complex called Oedipus Complex. Oedipus Complex is the fear for his father and the love and sexual desire for mother Girls develop Electra Complex Girl wishes to posses her father for which she sees her mother as rival.

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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

The latency stage is from 7 to 12 years The child s sexual instincts are usually at sleep because of social fear His outwardly interest grow, he enjoys playing and talking with his friends He does not like the love shown by his parents. This stage remains till puberty It is the time when the unresolvable sexual desires of Phallic Stage are repressed by the superego

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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Genital Stage this stage is from 12 to 20 year

 the boys and girls see their sexual organs grow Phallic Stage is again aroused with strong intensity The children at this stage, start telling false stories, day dreaming. When boys and girls are alone they feel depressed and defeated Personality development is satisfying sexual instincts Develops a genuine interest in opposite sex

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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Genital Stage

Freud believed in order for people to attain the ideal genital character they must relinquish the passivity of the early childhood days. For that they must get love, security, physical comfort. They must learn to work, postpone gratifications, become responsible and assume a more active role in dealing with life s problems.

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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

Freudian Stages This theory of Freud is based on a theoretical conception, rather than measurable item for scientific verification This theory does not give a total picture of personality This theory gives an important insight in to Personality Structure and the idea of unconscious motivation.

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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

Neo- Freudian theories Modern Psychologists do not agree on over-emphasis of sexual instincts as determinants of personality development as identified by Freud. Jung, Adler, Horney, Fromm and Erikson were prominent among them. They emphasized environmental variables in the development of personality. Erikson s Personality development stages provide valuable insight for understanding development of personality

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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

Erikson s Psychological Stages Erikson gave more attention to social rather than the sexual adaptations of the individuals. Erikson identified eight stages characterize the unending development of a person. He characterize each stage by a particular crisis that needs to be resolved successfully before a person can move to the next stage These eight stages are not totally separable and the crisis are never fully resolved

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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Erikson s Psychological Stages

Stage of Development

Age

Crisis Trust Vs Distrust Autonomy Vs Doubt initiative vs guilt

Oral Sensory stage 0-1 year Mascular and Anal 1 yr to 2 Stage yrs Locomotor and 3 yr - 5 yr genital stage

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

Erikson s Psychological Stages

industry vs inferiority Latency stage Puberty & identity vs 12yr- 19yr confusion Adolescence 20s & intimacy vs above isolation Early Adulthood Young and middle Generativity vs 40s & 50s Stagnation adulthood 60s & Integrity vs

6yr puberty

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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

Erikson s Psychological Stages 1. Oral Sensory Stage or Infancy Stage a child who is raised in loving and affectionate atmosphere learn to trust others. Lack of love and affection leads to mistrust. This bears long lasting impact on one s personality and the reluctant behaviour 2. Muscular and Anal stage or Early Childhood this period the child starts to acquire independence. When the child is allowed to it he/she feels autonomy. If disallowed, a sense of shame and doubt develops in child

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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Erikson s Psychological Stages

3. Play Age or Locomotor Genital Stage the child seeks to discover what can be done. If the child is allowed or encouraged, he/she develops a sense of initiative. If the child is discouraged he/she feels lack of self-confidence/ guilt. 4.School Age or Latency Stage the child joins school and learns knowledge and skills. If the child makes progress compatible with his/her abilities, it develops a sense of industry in the child, otherwise a sense of inferiority.

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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Erikson s Psychological Stages

5. Adolescence or Puberty and Adolescence during teen age period children try to gain identity for them in the society. They do not want to become confused about them selves, who they are. The autonomy, initiative and industry developed in the early stages help the teenagers gain identity for them. Otherwise they are confused about themselves. 6. Young Adulthood or Early Adulthood during the twenties they develop deep and permanent relationships with others to have a feeling of intimacy. Failing in it results in isolation

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PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Erikson s Psychological Stages 7. Adulthood or Young and middle Adulthood the adults during 40s and 50s ( Starting from late 20s) face the situation of generativity or self-absorption. Adults who are productive in their work, raise children with serious concern and guides to next generation are called generative. They are absorbed in their career development and maintainence. 8.Old Age/Sunset Age/Mature Adulthood- the adult of integrity gains a sense of wisdom. He/she appreciates continuity of past, present and future and becomes fully satisfied.Fear of death is dispelled. The reverse situation results in a sense of despair, fear from death, desire for living second time and depressed

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

Chris Argyris, an Organizational Behavioural Theorist, diverted from strict Stage Theories of Personality Development and has identified specific dimensions of human personality, progresses along a continuum immaturity as an infant to maturity as an adult.

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

Immaturity Maturity Continuum Immaturity Characteristics Passivity Dependence Few ways of Behaving Shallow interests Short-time Perspective Subordinate Position Lack of self-awareness Maturity Characteristics Activity Independence Diverse Behaviour Deep Interests Long time perspective Super ordinate Position Self-awareness and Control

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Immaturity Maturity Continuum

1. As Child from passivity stage to an adult of increased activities. A child is in the hands of his environment, and events occur without his choice, but an adult knows how to control environment and occurring events. 2. From dependence as a child to independent as an adult. This process occurs unevenly making some people very independent and others quite close to protective people.

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Immaturity Maturity Continuum

3. Child behaves only in few ways but adult behaves in many ways. An adult is less predictable and more adaptable than the child. Few goals and many goals. 4. Child has erratic, casual and shallow interests but develops deeper and stronger interests as an adult. Gradually he acquires a fairly well defined set of interests, which can absorb him for hours and offer him great satisfaction.

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Immaturity Maturity Continuum

5. Child is almost exclusively concerned with the present, his


time perspective is very short, as a mature, his time perspective increases to include the past and the future. 6. Child is subordinate to everyone, as adult he moves to equal or superior position. He might be working as a superior or subordinate, he does not think himself as being inherently to be a follower. 7. Child does not have habitual set of attitudes. As an adult he thinks about himself and is aware of the kind of person he is. He has an ego and may go to protect it

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Sheldon s Personality Development


William Sheldon tried to explain personality development based on an individuals body build. BODY BUILDS
ENDOMORPH ( FLESHY)

PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS

Friendly, People Oriented, seeks others when in trouble, slow to react, loves to eat, jovial, good in human relationship MESOMORPH Seeks physical adventure, enjoys exercise, (Athletic) aggressive, risk taker, competition oriented ECTOMORPH (Thin) Likes privacy, socially inhibited, quick to react and hypersensitive to pain

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

PERSONALITY TRAITS The structure of personality depends on characteristic (trait) that describe an individuals behaviour. A comprehensive classification of personality traits is the sixteen source traits by R.B. Cattel (1973)

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Source Traits
Out going Less inteligent Affected by feeling Submissive Serious Expedient Timid Tough-minded More intelligent Emotionally stable dominant Happy go-lucky Conscientious Venturesome Sensitive

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Trusting Practical Forthright Self-assured Conservative Group- dependent uncontrolled Relaxed

Suspicious Imaginative Shrewd Apprehensive experimenting Self sufficient controlled Tension

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

PERSONALITY TRAITS AFFECTING BEHAVIOUR Personality has a key influence on work performance Each man s personality reveals it self the in the way he works with his superior, his subordinates, and other people. As a result, when the incumbent on a job changes, everyone has to adjust to a whole series of changes in the way work is accomplished. On this context psychologists have tried to identify types of personality and personality traits

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR PERSONALITY TRAITS AFFECTING BEHAVIOUR

From the OB point of view the following classifications were made: 1. Big Five Personality Traits 2. Other Personality Traits
Big Five Personality Traits

Researchers identified five fundamental traits that are relevant to organizations. These are: 1. Agreeableness 4. Extroversion 2. Conscientiousness 5. Openness 3. Negative Emotionality

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PERSONALITY TRAITS AFFECTING BEHAVIOUR Big Five Personality Traits Agreeableness High Low Conscientiousness High Low Negative Emotionality Low High Extroversion Extroversion Introversion Openness More Less

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PERSONALITY TRAITS AFFECTING BEHAVIOUR Big Five Personality Traits Agreeableness is a person s ability to get along with others. It causes some people to be gentle, cooperative, forgiving, understanding and good-natured in their dealings with others. Conscientiousness is the number of goals on which a person focuses his attention. Persons who focuses on a few goals at a time are likely to be organized, systematic, careful, thorough, and disciplined. Negative Emotionality means moving of the feelings or agitation of mind. Persons with less negative emotionality are relatively poised, calm, resilient, and secure.

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

PERSONALITY TRAITS AFFECTING BEHAVIOUR Big Five Personality Traits

Extroversion reflects a person s comfort level with relationships. Introversion is the tendency in individuals which directs them to turn inward and experience and process feelings, thoughts and ideas within themselves. Extroversion to outward of themselves searching for outward stimuli with which they can interact. Introverts are quiet, reflective and intellectual people who prefer to interact with small intimate circle of friends. Extroverts are sociable, lively gregarious and seek outward interaction.

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

PERSONALITY TRAITS AFFECTING BEHAVIOUR Big Five Personality Traits Openness refers to a person s rigidity of beliefs and range of interests. A person with high level of openness are willing to listen to new ideas and to change their own ideas, beliefs and attitudes to new information. They also tend to have broad interests and to be curious, imaginative and creative. Generally people with more openness perform better.  Managers who can both understand the frame

work and assess these traits in their employees are in a good position to understand how and why they behave as they do.

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

PERSONALITY TRAITS AFFECTING BEHAVIOUR Other Personality Traits Other than Big Five Personality traits, there are some other personality traits which are relevant for organizations. 1. Self-Concept Self-concept is the way individuals define themselves as to who they are and derive their sense of identity. It is the extent to which they consistently regard themselves as capable, successful, important and worthy individuals. 2. Self-Esteem An individuals liking or disliking one self is called selfesteem. It is how managers perceive themselves and their role in the organization.

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PERSONALITY TRAITS AFFECTING BEHAVIOUR Other Personality Traits

3. Self-Monitoring is one s ability to adjust his/her behaviour to external factors or situation. Individuals with high self-monitoring trait show greater adaptability to adjust themselves with external situations. They can behave differently in different situations. They are likely to more successful managers, who at times required to play multiple roles and even contradictory roles to perform their managerial activities.

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PERSONALITY TRAITS AFFECTING BEHAVIOUR

4. Machiavellianism is manipulation of others as primary way of achieving one s goals. Mach scale measures the extent to which an individual tends to be Machiavellian. People with high score on Mach scale, tend to be cool, logical in assessing the system around them, willing to twist and turn facts to influence others, and try to gain control of people, events and situations by manipulating the system to their advantage. The personality characteristics of Machiavellianism ( Mach) is named after Niccole Machiavelli, who wrote how to get and manipulate power

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
PERSONALITY TRAITS AFFECTING BEHAVIOUR

5.Risk-Taking individuals differ in taking risks. The propensity to assume or avoid risks affects Manager s behaviour in making decisions. Managers with high risk taking make more rapid decisions and use less information in making choices. The propensity of assume risks varies depending upon the nature of the job. The Stock Trader in brokerage firm which demands for rapid decision-making , but the same personality trait may not be considered good in auditing activities which require concentration and low risk-taking propensity.

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR PERSONALITY TRAITS AFFECTING BEHAVIOUR

6.Locus of control- is one s belief that what happens is either within one s control or beyond one s control. The former is called Internals and the latter is called Externals. Those who have internal locus of control believe that they are masters of their fate. On the contrary, those who have external locus of control see themselves as pawns of fate and believe that what happens to them in their lives is due to luck or factors beyond their control. A comparison of internals with externals have proved that externals are less satisfied with their jobs and have higher absenteeism rates than internals.

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PERSONALITY TRAITS AFFECTING BEHAVIOUR

7. Need Patterns there are four types of needs that people have at work. These are needs for autonomy, achievement, affiliation and dominance. Those who have high need for achievement engage themselves proactively in work in order to feel proud about their achievements and successes; those who have high need for affiliation work co-operatively with others; those who having high need for autonomy like to work in an environment with less close supervision; those who have high need for dominance are very effective in an environment where they can actively enforce their legitimate authority.

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PERSONALITY TRAITS AFFECTING BEHAVIOUR

8. Tolerance for Ambiguity some people can tolerate high level of ambiguity withoutv experiencing undue stress and still function effectively while people who have low tolerance of ambiguity may be effective in structured work setting but it is almost impossible to operate when things are rapidly changing. 9. Work-Ethic orientation- the extremely work-ethicoriented people get greatly involved in the job and live upto being described as living, eating and breathing the job. On the other hand people with low-work-ethic orientation try to do the minimum that is necessary.

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
PERSONALITY TRAITS AFFECTING BEHAVIOUR

10. Authoritarianism - is an attribute used to describe persons having certain negative beliefs about work and workers. Based on this the behaviour of employees in an organization is explained by using the following traits: 1. Believes in formal authority 2. Obedient to the authority 3. Stick to conventional values and resists new ideas 4. Conforms to rules and regulations

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR PERSONALITY TRAITS AFFECTING BEHAVIOUR 10. Authoritarianism

5. Believes in directing subordinates rather than listening to them 6. Is rigid and prefers a structured environment. They will achieve targets in the short-run, but in the long-run will not be able to maintain the level of motivation and satisfaction. From the above mentioned traits, some conclusion can be drawn about the desirable personality characteristics for effective managers.

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR