Historical Periods of OT History

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 1. Primeval Period Gen. 1-11 2. Patriarchal Period (~2187-1800 BC) Gen. 12-50 3. Egyptian Sojourn/Bondage (1800-1446 BC) Gap between end of Genesis and beginning of Exodus 4. Exodus and Conquest (1446-1350 BC) Key period in OT history. Exodus-Joshua 5. Period of Judges (1350-1050) Judges, Ruth

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6. United Monarchy (1050-930) Saul-40 yrs, David-40 yrs, Solomon-40 yrs. 1&2 Samuel-1 Kings
7. Divided Monarchy (930-586) 10 tribes of Israel in north with Samaria as the capital and 2 tribes of Judah in south with Jerusalem as the capital. 1 Kings-2 Kings 8. Exile and Post-Exile Period (586-400) 722BC northern kingdom falls to the Assyrians and 586 BC southern kingdom falls to Babylonians. Then after Persian government replaces Babylonian government, the people are allowed to return to the land and do so in 3 returns- 538-37 BC under Zerubbabel, 458 BC under Ezra, and 435 BC under Nehemiah.

I,II Samuel
‡ The history of Israel in Samuel centers around three personalities which divide the book: ‡ I Samuel 1-7- Samuel
± The last judge and first official prophet. He also served as priest. ± God s answer to the moral plight of Israel in those dark days

‡ I Samuel 8-15 Saul
± The first king

‡ I Samuel 16-31; II Samuel - David
± The greatest king

‡ I Samuel in particular is a book about transitions:
± from a theocracy to a monarchy

I,II Samuel
‡ I Samuel highlights two major events:
± the establishment of the monarchy in Israel ± the preparation of David to take the throne

‡ The book s themes are:
± the kingship of God ± His providential guidance ± His sovereign will and power

Theocracy God

People

Monarchy
God

King

People

I,II Samuel
‡ I Samuel is a book about transitions:
± from a theocracy to a monarchy ± from liturgical worship from Shiloh to Jerusalem ± from a tribal league to a unified kingdom capable of exercising imperial power over neighboring states

God is King-All authority
The Lord will reign forever and ever Ex. 15:18

Israel s King
responsible for

Israel s Prophet
responsible for

Civil Authority

Spiritual Authority

God is King-All authority
The Lord will reign forever and ever Ex. 15:18

Israel s King
responsible for

Answers to

Israel s Prophet
responsible for

Civil Authority

Spiritual Authority

How the Lord Views Man
‡ 1 Sam 16:7 Man looks at the outward appearance, but the Lord looks at the heart." ‡ Saul s was characterized by pride, trusting in his own ability, and never repented of his sin.
± 1 Chron. 10:13-14 Saul died because he was unfaithful to the Lord; he did not keep the word of the Lord and even consulted a medium for guidance, 14 and did not inquire of the Lord. So the Lord put him to death and turned the kingdom over to David son of Jesse.

‡ He failed to realize that obedience was essential in the sacred and unique trust afforded him by God. ‡ David s was characterized by humility, obedience, and a repentant heart Ps. 51;
± 1 Kings 15:3 He committed all the sins his father had done before him; his heart was not fully devoted to the Lord his God, as the heart of David his forefather had been.

David s Flight from Saul

2 Samuel
‡ Book is distinctively the book of David s reign. It begins with the death of Saul and ends just before David s death, covering a period of 40 years. ‡ 2 Samuel describes David s triumphs (1-10) and his troubles (11-24). ‡ Two themes are: ± Davidic Covenant ± Messianic Promise

Davidic Covenant
‡ An unconditional, Royal Grant Covenant ‡ 2 Sam 7:1-16 After the king was settled in his palace and the Lord had given him rest from all his enemies around him, 2 he said to Nathan the prophet, "Here I am, living in a palace of cedar, while the ark of God remains in a tent. Nathan replied to the king, "Whatever you have in mind, go ahead and do it, for the Lord is with you 11 The Lord declares to you that the Lord himself will establish a house for you 16 Your house and your kingdom will endure forever before me; your throne will be established forever.'" ± David wanted to build God a house , the temple, but God promised to make David a house , not a residence but a dynasty (Gen. 7:1) vs.11b ± This dynasty would endure forever vs. 16

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