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Fossil Fuel is a sold, liquid or gaseous substance containing carbon that releases heat via chemical reaction with air
± CH4 + O2 = CO2 + H20 ± storehouse of chemical energy ± produced via decay of plant and/or animal remains over geological times
Combustion = rapid reaction with oxygen that produces heat via oxidation
± equipment to produce combustion is via combustor
Biomass = carbon based fuel produced over 10-100 yr timescales fuel
Coal & Peat
Rock-like combustible substance formed by arrested decay of remains if plant life that flourished millions of years ago during prolonged periods of tropical climates and abundant rainfall
± exhibits substantial variability in chemical composition a nd molecular structure ± contains inorganic substances
Peat = coal precursor formed by bacterial and chemical action on plant debris under action of heat and pressure
Natural Gas Consists of mixture if simple hydrocarbon gases (mostly methane)
± CH4 ± C2H6 etc ± H2S, N2, CO2
± hydrocarbon oily deposits in upper strata of Earth¶s crust ± complex mixture of many hydrocarbon fluids ± impurities are S,N,O,Ni,V
± fine grained mixture if sedimentary rock containing mixtures of sand,clay in association with organic materials
Sand or sandstone impregnated with viscous crude asphaltlike substances
± mixture of sand , water, bitumen ± recoverable by heating ±
Heating Values of Fossil Fuels Table 7.1(pg 299) .
Facts on Fossil Fuels Gasoline costs are of the same order as bottled water World crude production = 70 million bbl/day .
Fuel Properties Heating value = maximum energy obtained by complete combustion of fuel to its end products + cooling all products to RT Higher Heating Value = includes any additional heat released due to condensation Lower Heating Value = does not include heat of condensation Adiabatic Flame Temperature = maximum temperature that burns with no heat loss to the surroundings .
2 (pg 303) New technology liberates unrecoverable fuel stock ± utility decided by depletion and current advances that open up new sources .Resource Base for Fossil Fuels Table7.
Unconventional Fossil Fuels Ultra-heavy Oils ± viscous dense mixture of hydrocarbons that cannot be recovered by pumping ± viscosity lowered by steam injection or via injecting hot air to burn residual gases inside well ± has a low H/C ratio Gas Hydrates ± crystalline water molecules surrounding natural gas (CH4) in a cage ± formed beneath ocean floor ± must harvest natural gas that is locked up in molecule ± must avoid emissions that lead to global warming .
Fossil Resources and Sustainability Driving force for sustainability is: ± insurance against global warming ± smooth transition to lower fossil dependency ± diversification of global energy resources to prevent overreliance one a single energy source .
Issues for Harvesting of Fossil Fuels Harvesting Fossil Fuels based upon ± ± ± ± exploration discovery extraction transportation Coal ± extraction and transportation are major issues Petroleum ± ± ± ± locating additional deposits undersea development offshore drilling ANWR .
Fuel Storage and Transport Safety Issues ± ± ± ± ± fires and explosions careless handling causing ignition electrical discharge fuel spills (Exxon Valdez) better training & technology Transport Issues ± high shipping costs ± high gas-to-liquid conversion costs .
thermal decomposition) of raw fuel to produce more usable components ± fractional distillation to separate out different components ± yields higher quality fuels with higher H/C ratio via hydrogen additions ± ± ± ± .Fuel Conversion We define conversion as: The chemical/physical transformation needed to improve the quality of the fuel leads to upgraded fuel products yields feedstock for chemical manufacture removes impurities from raw stocks chemical cracking (I.e.
Products of Fuel Conversion Fig.1 (pg 308) . 7.
Improvements in Processing Improvements in fuel processing include: ± ± ± ± ± thermal and catalytic processing petroleum refining compartmentalization conversion cleaning Compartmentalization ± fractional distillation & separation into simpler components Conversion ± modification of chemical composition to obtain desired properties ± catalytic cracking Cleaning ± removal of pollutants from fuel ± S.N. metals .
Refining Adjusts yield of specific products to meet fuel requirements ± regional ± time of year ± quality regulations Alternative Fuels ± use natural gas and biomass as raw materials ± use coal and oil shale to obtain cleaner fuels .
2 (pg.Pyrolysis of Coal Thermal Decomposition of Coal Fig. 7.311) .
S tp obtain H2S.3-1.Coal Liquefaction Heat coal to a liquid via carbon rejection or addition of hydrogen ± further upgrade React coal slurry (coal particals in oil) with hydrogen CH.HCN ± remove solid by-products inorganic silicates .8 +H2 = CH 1.7 (liquids) + solids ± need good source of low cost H2 ± gasify coal containing N.NH3.
Coal Gasification Chemistry Table 7.3 (pg 312) .
Hydrogen Generation Water -Gas Shift ± CO + 2H2O = CO2 + H2 Direct production ± C + H2 = CH4 ± C + H2O = CH4 + 1/2 CO2 (500oC) Methanation of Coal ± CO + 3H2 = CH4 + H2O ± requires catalyst ± requires lower T¶s for higher yields Synthesis Gas ± C + H2O = CO + H2 ± used to manufacture important fuels .
Range of Fuels Obtained form Synthesis Gas Fig.4(pg315) .7.
Coal Gasification with Steam Wide range of heating values obtainable fig.314) .3(pg.7.
Basics of Fuel Combustion Combustion = release of heat via chemical reaction of fuel with oxidizer (air) A feedback loop is used top maintain continuous combustion of fuel and oxygen via mixing two species fir temperatures and times needed to sustain reaction ± recirculate flow of hot combustion peoducts in unignited fuel/air mix ± electrical ignition of fuel/air mixture Basic Combustion Reaction ± fuel + oxidant+ diluent = desired combustion products + heat + diluent + undesired products .
Sox Current engineering design allows efficient burning of fuels Technology continues to improve in an evolutionary manner .Combustion Technology Issues Is dominant means of converting fossil fuel into useful form of energy Major source of CO2 emission into the atmosphere Generates diverse pollutants ± NOx.
efficiency and environmental performance of the combustion reaction Can serve as a sink for energy liberated by combustion ± waste heat Can become a source of adverse emissions ± NOx .Role of Diluents Does not participate chemically in the combustion reaction Can influence the temperature.
Requirements for Combustion Must have sufficient oxidant to combust fuel completely ± CO2 + H2O Must release energy fast enough to heat up fuel and oxidant to a minimum temperature for reaction Must generate enough energy to compensate for work of gas expansion or heat losses form combustion environment Provide intimate physical contact between molecules of fuel and oxidant ± ± ± ± micromixing turbulence of mixed flow momentum transfer heat transfer .
Requirements for Combustion Fast reacting needed to achieve desired heat release Rates ± pressure and temperature dependent Mixing times must be sufficient to achieve complete combustion .
7.5 (pg.321) .Combustion of Fuel Droplet Fig.
Temperature -Time History of Fuel Droplet Fig.000/sec for coal Times for combustion = 0.1sec . 7.6 (pg.321) heating rates = 10.000-15.
322) particles vaporize in a fuel-rich flame .7 (pg.Combustion of Atomized Oil Spray Fig. 7.
Control NOx Emissions Reduce peak temperatures Use dilute fuel feed Useful fuel injection scenario to produce N2 (g) Adverse emissions due to : ± ± ± ± ± products of incomplete combustion too low temperatures or pressures inadequate oxygen supply excess fuel/oxygen inadequate mixing times Fuel Impurities ± soot & smoke ± polycyclic hydrocarbons ± CO and metallic impurities .
Steam Turbine Combustion Plant Fig.Gas Turbine.8 (pg323) generate electric power low capital cost low cost electricity efficiency= 60% . 7.
7.Coal -fired Power Plant Fig.9 (pg 323) Operating efficiency= 35% Advanced designs = 50% .
How Do We Control Pollution Sources ? Improve design for better ± mixing fuel + oxidant ± optimize temperature for minimum NOx production and polycyclic aromatics ± use improved materials for combustor ± increase combustor volume .
16 (pg 334) avg CO2 generation/capita = 3.Carbon Management Fig. 7.7 tons CO2/yr .
5 (pg335) . 7.Sequestration Options for CO2 Fig.
international accords on carbon management must be accepted by all produces and consumers Sustainability requires measures to prevent social.Geopolitical Factors 50 % of Us consumption of fossil fuels comes from external sources To reduce the effects of CO2. economic and political instabilities in fossil fuel exporters Sustainability requires an orderly transition in social and political institutions as alternative technologies become available .
Geopolitical Factors Sustainability must prevent economic terrorism by oil exporter ± prevent takeovers by radical idealogic groups ± we must pay close attention to political developents in exporter countries Reducing dependency on fossil fuels must win popular support ± con only be done by education of public on importance of global warming to their welfare .
sanitation. nutrition etc.Equitable Access Emerging economics must receive financing from developed countries to encourage sustainable development Higher energy taxes on fossil fuels face tough resistance due to public opposition to higher energy prices Fossil fuel taxes are a large ³cash cow´ for many governments ± resistance to sustainability comes from gov¶t desire to collect and maintain high taxes on fossil fuels Use of inefficient technologies in many developing countries may reflect their need to concentrate resources on health care. Sustainability must take into account in-grained cultural habits such as America¶s lover for fossil fueled engines .
Economics of Fossil Energy Fossil fuels have a 100 yr history that has developed a global fuel supply infrastructure ± ± ± ± ± discovery transport upgrade distribute utilize Fossil fuels are often subsidized by tax incentives and gov¶t regulations that are favorable to fossil fuel industry ± lobbystists in Congress and White House Sustainable technologies do not have this advantage .
18 (pg343) . 7.Comparison of Fuel Prices with Other Consumables Fig.
60/ 106 BTU . US consumption = 2.Fossil Fuel Costs and Consumption Petroleum ± Avg.5 gal/day ± prices fluctuate considerably Natural Gas ± $2.00-$1.00/106 BTU Coal ± $1.50/ 10 6 BTU Nuclear Power ± $4.00-$5.
Principles for Evaluation of Fossil Energy Option Energy Balances ± 1st/2nd laws of Thermodynamics ± Thermal efficiency ± Capital costs ~ energy efficiency Material Balances ± Accounts for raw materials used ± mass balances must account for all species input and output Technical Feasibility ± ± ± ± ± ± Must satisfy basic laws od physics must obtain acceptable efficiency must have acceptable kinetics materials must available and have acceptable lifetimes safety risks considered economics must favorable .
Why Are Fossil Fuels Important to Sustainable Energy? Sustain economic progress Provide enabling technology to transition from non=fossil alternatives Avoid economic disasters until suitable alternatives come on stream Indispensable to social and economic progress in the developed world Essential to the economics of both developed and developing countries Improvements in efficiency can prolong the transition period to sustainable society ± can have both positive and negative effects .
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