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Mixtures and solutions

Definitions for Mixtures and Solutions matter: all materials in the universe. mixture: two or more materials mixed or stirred together. dissolve: the process of a material mixing with a liquid in a special way. When salt mixes with water, it seems to disappear and cannot be seen until the water dries up. solution: a special mixture formed when a material dissolves in a liquid and cannot be filtered out. saturation: a solution is saturated when as much solid material (such as sugar) as possible has dissolved in a liquid (such as coffee), and any additional solid material sits on the bottom.

additional material settles to the bottom. dilute: to make a solution less concentrated. the more material dissolved in the liquid. concentration: the amount of material dissolved in a measure of liquid. to change from a liquid into a gas. something you can observe such as size. soluble: the property that substances have of dissolving in solvents. such as the soluability of salt in water.Mixtures and solutions property: a characteristic of an object. saturated solution: a solution in which no more material will dissolve. evaporation: to dry up. . or texture. th more concentrated the solution. usually by adding more liquid. color. shape.

iron filings and cooking oil can be in cups or small beakers. the other does not. After making the mixtures. each group must come up with a procedure for separating the ingredients. salt. and suspensions. each group has to make two mixtures using three ingredients each from the list of ingredients in the procedure. In part #2. Properties of Mixtures and Solutions . threechemical reaction: a change that occurs as a result of mixing two or more materials together. and go over any new vocabulary words. Show them examples of mixtures. the students have to grind Total Cereal into a powder and determine the percentage of iron in the mixture. The sand. empty plastic cup and balance available at each station.Mixtures and solutions volume: the three-dimensional space occupied by something. Go over the background information with the students. scrap paper. Teacher Preparation All materials should be available for each group of students (workstation). Explain that in the following activity. magnet. One of the mixtures must contain water. Have a cup of cereal. A reaction results in the formation of new materials with different properties from the original ones. solutions.

and measuring and recording data. determine the concentrations of components of a mixture. organizing and analyzing information.Mixtures and solutions Objectives Students will identify and separate the components in mixtures. determine the iron content in cereal. use the following skills: making and applying observations. Starting the activity Materials .

You have to list any differences or similarities between the two mixtures. add about 4 grams of salt to 500 mL of water. . Darken the room and shine a flashlight through each beaker. Point out that this method is one way to differentiate between a solution and a suspension. The beaker with calcium carbonate will appear cloudy. prepare a solution of calcium carbonate (4.0 grams) and 500 mL of water. Also.Mixtures and solutions 4 g salt Two beakers (at least 500 mL) 4 g calcium carbonate or flour or talcum powder stirring rod flashlight water Procedure To illustrate the difference between a solution and a suspension. Make certain that each mixture is stirred well.

When light passes through the and solutions The particles in a suspension are larger and more unevenly distributed than those of a solution. same effect in a movie UROPEAS/FQ/3rdESO_archivos/Mixtures_Solutio ns. http://www.htm . the larger suspended particles scatter the light in all directions producing a cloudy appearance. This phenomenon is known as the Tyndall Effect. when light from the projector becomes visible through the dust in the air. Most students have experienced the Effect.

Mixtures can be in any of the four phases of mattermatteror they can be in combinations of different phases. Students should understand that mixtures can change in appearance but this does not mean that any substances have changed in their chemical composition. Mixtures can be combinations of elements or compounds. The amounts of substances in a mixture can vary. homogeneous. chemically. A pure element or a pure compound is rarely found. in nature are mixtures. .Mixtures and solutions Background Information Mixtures are combinations of substances that are not combined chemically. Air is a mixture of gases. alloys are mixtures of solids. milk is a mixture of solids and liquids. and those that are the same throughout are called homogeneous. Mixtures that do not appear to be distributed the same throughout are said to be heterogeneous. Most substances found compounds.

giving it a cloudy appearance (Tyndall Effect). becomes sweeter and we say that it is more concentrated. In solution. the water evaporates and the sugar is left behind. Pouring a solution. All materials are not soluble. in addition to settling. through filter paper will not separate the mixture.Mixtures and solutions ‡ Solutions are common types of homogeneous mixtures. solution when mixed. The dissolved portion of the solution is called the solute (sugar) and the dissolving portion is the solvent (water). The particles in a suspension are in the range of 10-2000 angstroms in diameter (1A = 10. The particles in a solution are usually much less than 10 A. only combined them. ‡ . Particles this size cannot adhere to the molecules of the solvent and will eventually settle out. Sugar and water form a mixtures. the sugar particles are too small. the particles in a suspension scatter light when it is passed through.00000001 cm). so that one portion is not sweeter than another. the entire solution (water). The best method is distillation. If more sugar is added to the solution. The sugar becomes evenly distributed throughout the solution. like sugar and water. As a result. A suspension is a mixture in which the solute particles are larger than molecules or ions. sugar and water have not lost their properties.

or the ocean. air. but their fundamental chemical structure does not change when they enter the mixture. When you see distilled water. Mixtures are the form for most things in nature. They are substances held together by physical forces. chemical. . Rocks.Mixtures and solutions Mixture Basics Mixtures are absolutely everywhere you look. you can boil off the water and still have those dissolved substances left over. That fact means water. the salt is left in the container. maybe salt. A mixture would be a glass of water with other things dissolved inside. not forces. So. Because it takes very high temperatures to boil salt. they are just about anything you find. if you have some dissolved substances. it's a pure substance. That statement means the individual molecules enjoy being near each other. that there are just water molecules in the liquid. Each of the substances in that glass of water keeps the original chemical properties.

com/files/matter_mixture. it is considered to be a mixture. Even the wood in your pencil is considered a chemical mixture. Even something as simple as bleach and water is a solution.Mixtures and solutions Mixtures are Everywhere There are an infinite number of mixtures.chem4kids. Just think about how many cakes there are. There is the basic cellulose of the wood. Anything you can combine is a mixture. http://www. If you put sand into a glass of water. Solutions are also mixtures. Think of everything you eat. A solution can also be made of two liquids. but there are also thousands of other compounds in that pencil. You can always get the sand out of the water by filtering the water away.html . Each of those cakes is made up of a different mixture of ingredients. You can always tell a mixture because each of the substances can be separated from the group in different physical ways.