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# Transmission Line Fundamentals

Southern Methodist University EETS8320 Fall 2005 Session 5 Slides only. (No notes.)

Rev. 2.8;Page 1

Major Transmission Facts 1
 Electromagnetic waves flow via the nonconductive space in or around wire/cable conductors, and not via the metal conductor itself.
± Some of this electromagnetic power may be coupled to/from other nearby wires, producing ³crosstalk´ ± Transpositions, twisted pairs, or use of co-axial cable (having minimum external EM fields) minimize crosstalk

 Electromagnetic waves are guided by conductors (in twisted pair, co-axial cable, or wave guides).  Power loss is due to:
± A. Longitudinal metallic resistance of wire/cable ± B. Radiation losses (particularly for twisted pairs)

Rev. 2.8;Page 2

Diagram of EM Fields Around Wire Pair

Figure taken from web site http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/~www_pa/Scots_Guide/audio/part6/page3.html The H field is related to the B field by the equation B=µ·H

Rev. 2.8;Page 3

Structure and EM Fields in Co-ax

See footnote on previous page.

Rev. 2.8;Page 4

Z0 : Z 0 ! .Major Transmission Facts 2  Analysis of transmission via examination of the EM fields is most accurate. Loop inductance (henry/meter) G. Parallel insulation conductance (mho/meter or 1/ohmmeter) C. Longitudinal resistance (ohm/meter) L. Parallel wire pair capacitance (farad/meter)  Derived parameters: ± Fractional power loss in percent/meter or dB/meter ± Characteristic impedance or surge impedance. but also complicated  For transverse EM waves we can determine four ³lumped´ parameters that approximately describe the properties of the section of wire/cable: ± ± ± ± R.

R  jL 2Tf .

G  jC 2Tf ± Wave speed (phase velocity) cm ! 1 / .

R  jL 2Tf y .

and more convenient for analysis of power flow. R.8. Rev.Levine . (H field is B/µ . 2.G  jC 2Tf * Transverse EM waves have both their E and H fields in the cross-sectional plane perpendicular to the direction of EM power flow. Mathematicians use symbol i.Page 5 ©1996-2005.) H is measured in amp/meter. Symbol j=-1. analogous to lumped element current. but engineers use i for current.

R. ± Waveform changes are a problem primarily for modems.Major Transmission Facts 3  R typically increases proportional to frequency because the ³skin´ depth of EM wave penetration into the metallic conductors is inversely proportional to frequency.8. This produces ³echo.´ EM wave power is partially reflected and partially transmitted. typical wire/cable transmission medium has slightly different wave speeds for different sine wave frequency components of a complicated waveform. thus producing an altered waveform after passing through many km of wire/cable ± Attenuation is a problem for voice and modem signals both.  When two transmission wires/cables having different Z0 are ³spliced. 2.Page 6 ©1996-2005.Levine .  Aside from power loss.´ Rev.

g. R is resistance (ohms). *Material resistivity of copper can be increased by repeatedly bending and flexing the wire to modify the atomic level crystal structure. 2.8.Electrical Resistance  Most metal objects have ³linear´ resistance properties.g. R.Levine . Rev. The unit ohmcentimeter is also used historically. Current density is uniform throughout the area for unvarying or ³direct´ current. platinum) and low for others (e.Page 7 ©1996-2005. silver). Ohm¶s ³law´ applies: v= Ri. Hard drawn wire is mechanically stronger and can be pulled with less breakage. and v is voltage (volts) area length  Longitudinal electric resistance of a wire is determined by: ± R = V  length/area ± where V is the material resistivity* (unit: ohmmeter). ± area is Tr2 for circular wire of radius r (but note later about ³skin´effect)  Power ³lost´ due to electrical resistance R carrying current i. with a high value for some materials (e. where i is current (amps). is i2R (also equivalent to v2/R or vi) ± This formula describes dc (constant current) power loss accurately. Newly manufactured ³soft drawn´ copper wire has slightly lower resistivity than ³hard drawn´ wire that was repeatedly flexed via roller machines before selling.

etc. Consequently Aluminum power wiring was banned. so-called ³skin effect. 2.. paper pulp. the conversion of electric power into heat ± Silver would be slightly better. but its surface oxide is a poor conductor*  Some EM Field power Radiates into Space ± Particularly for non-shielded wire.also lighter in weight!. curved wires. R.g. ± Even with super-conducting wires (zero resistance) there would be some radiation losses *Resistive surface aluminum oxide led to heating and home fires in 1960s through 1980s.. etc. or installed only with special coating or terminal fittings. silk or other woven fibers.) ± Only a surface portion of the copper carries alternating current.Page 8 ©1996-2005.Power Loss  Power really flows via an electromagnetic wave in the space surrounding the wires (only a little electric field in the copper) ± Wave speed is affected by the insulation material (e.therefore effective resistance is higher at higher frequency due to smaller effective current-carrying area  Resistance of the wire causes i2R loss..plastics.to form a ³boundary´ for EM wave ± depth of the current ³skin´ is inversely proportional to square root ( of frequency -.Levine . Rev.8. but too costly (silver coating/plating sometimes used) ± Aluminum¶s low resistivity is close to Cu -.´ -.

628 0.42 Electric power uses 1.644 0. Larger ga or AWG number implies smaller diameter  Most other countries list actual diameter (in mm) [dc resistance stated in table] B&S or Diameter AWG Copper (inches) Wire Gauge 12 0. 2. per km (at dc. B&S=Brown & Sharpe (manufacturer of measuring equipment).020 Diameter . 0 Hz) (mm) [loop .4 Electric power uses Telephone history interest Telephone use today Telephone use today Abbreviations: AWG=American Wire Gauge.025 0.6 103. is twice the resistance of one wire] 2. wire diameter is described by peculiar ³gauge´ (ga or AWG) number ± Based on the number of times the wire is drawn through smaller and smaller conical diamond forming dies during manufacture.Page 9 ©1996-2005. .Levine . R.053 10.064 0.511 16.8 164.56 51.036 0.Wire ³Gauge´  In North America.8.91 0.08 14 19 22 24 0. = Ohms Rev.

Transmission Lines  Electromagnetic waves propagate or flow in a direction parallel to the wire¶s axis. but power flow is mostly in the electromagnetic field outside the metallic wires ± The wires act as a waveguide. or do waves bounce around on diagonal reflected paths as in a hollow waveguide or a multi-mode optical fiber?  A sufficiently accurate method for many applications is to describe the transmission line properties by approximate ³lumped´ electrical parameters Rev.Levine . 2. although the name ³waveguide´sometimes describes a hollow tube  The most accurate. but complicated.Page 10 ©1996-2005. R. method of analysis is to examine the electromagnetic wave pattern in space ± Is the propagation completely parallel to the wires.8.

they do just that: » Parallel wires separated far more than their diameters » Wires bent to right angles from parallel (so-called dipole antenna) like the lines above..Page 11 ©1996-2005.´ particularly at audio frequencies ± Called a ³radio receiving antenna´ when intentional ± Electromagnetic waves may cause primarily magnetic or primarily electrostatic coupling or induction. 2. » A bend in the two parallel wires (over large distance compared to the wavelength)  EM waves from other sources may induce voltage or current on wires ± One cause of ³cross talk..8.Free-wave Coupling  Why don¶t the EM waves just flow out into space away from the wires? ± With certain geometrical arrangements.Levine . depending on geometrical arrangement Rev. R.

* Backward spelling is also used informally: 1/henry=yrneh (³ernie´).Levine . C ± unit: farad/meter (where farad= ampsec/volt)  Following two ³thought experiments´ require relatively short section of wire. R. so EM waves travel to far end in a very short time. R ± unit: ohm/meter  Inductance per unit (loop) length. L ± unit: henry/meter (where henry=voltsec/amp)  Leakage Conductance per unit length.8. 2. G ± unit: mho/meter or 1/(ohmmeter) of conductance per unit length (³leakage´ from one wire to another) ± Conductance is 1/resistance (informal unit ³mho´ is ohm spelled backwards -.Page 12 ©1996-2005.official name ³siemens´)* ± plastic insulation is very good so very little ³mhos´  Capacitance per unit length. 1/farad=daraf Rev.Transmission Line Properties  Approximate ³lumped´ section model of wave transmission  Resistance per unit (loop) length.

³short circuit´ the two wires at the far end ± Theoretically.) volts a-b a V I b amps t t 0 T Rev. The current i will increase ³slowly´ and the magnetic field increases proportional to i.Page 13 ©1996-2005.8. (Blue ³area´ is VT.Levine T .Inductance/unit length  Isolate a unit length of transmission wire pair. 0 R.  Compute VT/i at the end of the time. This is the inductance L. it is desirable to chill the material to a low (super-conducting??) temperature. 2. so the electrical resistance does not complicate the measurement! ± This is what scientists call a ³thought experiment´  Apply a constant voltage Va-b for T seconds.

(Green ³area´ is IT. This is the capacitance C. Positive electric charge is drawn away from the lower wire and pumped up to the upper wire.Levine T .) a I b amps volts a-b V t t 0 T Rev.Page 14 ©1996-2005. 0 R.8. The total amount of charge transferred in T seconds is I T (ampsec or coulomb)  Compute IT/V at the end of the time. The voltage Va-b will increase ³slowly´ as the electric field increases.Capacitance/unit length  Isolate a unit length of transmission wire pair  Apply a constant current I for T seconds. 2.

 The conductance between the two wires is measured in an experiment similar to measuring capacitance. Rev.  The loop resistance per unit length is measured in an experiment similar to measuring inductance. We find dc loop resistance from the ratio V/I using constant current I.Levine . 2. the effect of capacitance and conductance can be mathematically calculated. The effects of inductance and series resistance can be mathematically calculated using the measured ratio of voltage to loop current. except we measure the ³leakage´ current I that flows from one wire to another due to imperfect insulation.  All of these measurements can be made in a more practical way using sine wave test current or voltage at different frequencies. R.  We find that each of these four parameter measurements give slightly different results at different frequencies. Similarly.Resistance. etc.Page 15 ©1996-2005.8. For example. skin effect produces higher measured effective series resistance (ESR) at higher frequencies. Conductance.

Page 16 f=1 kHz f=2 kHz Diametrical distance Inside wire (mm) 0 1 2 ©1996-2005. R. 2.Levine .Illustration of Skin Effect B or H field circulates In clockwise direction.8. Rev. Intensity of H field (amp/m) Cross-section of wire carrying current into paper. f=0 kHz (DC) External H field falls off asymptotically inversely proportional to distance from wire center.

of resistance Note: These parameters are all dc values for 20º C temperature. instead of 7.  Leakage conductance between wires is more often described as 0. with typical plastic insulation. 2.14 µmho or µsiemens of conductance.Page 17 ©1996-2005. Rev.14 M.Lumped Element Model for Transmission Line  This represents a 1 km loop of 19 ga copper wire.Levine . R.8.

´ due to damaged or wet insulation. Example: telephone set  Longitudinal voltage produces significant ac power frequency ³hum´ if telephone line is ³unbalanced´ ± Example: unbalance occurs when one wire has lower resistance than other wire vis-à-vis ³ground/earth.Common (Longitudinal) Mode  Electrical ³Balance´ is important in telephone transmission lines ± Electrical characteristics such as capacitance or leakage conductance from either wire to ground should be the same (symmetrical).  Telephone lines run parallel to electric power wires for miles. 2. R.Levine .Page 18 ©1996-2005. on telephone poles or in underground conduits ± Power wires are furthest from the street level for safety of telephone repair crews  Longitudinal voltage can be magnetically coupled to both telephone wires ± ³Common Mode´ voltage appears on both wires with respect to ground/earth ± A device that senses the ³differential mode´ (voltage difference between the two wires) will not respond to a common mode voltage.8. Rev.

8. an ³unbalanced´ model with the same total loop parameter values is simpler for analysis Unbalanced Model Rev. 2. R.Page 19 ©1996-2005.Levine . Real transmission lines must have well balanced electrical characteristics to prevent longitudinal or common mode induced voltages from appearing at the ends  However. for many theoretical purposes.

Power loss still occurs.dc or Resistive Model  A model which ignores L and C is only useful for the single special purpose of computing dc loop current  Omitting inductance and capacitance theoretically removes time delay and waveform distortions.Page 20 ©1996-2005. R. ± Note for dc that L becomes a zero ohm resistance or a short circuit. while C becomes an open circuit or Rev.Levine . 2.8.

. higher resistance..Wire Resistance R Depends On.  Signal frequency: due to frequency-dependent skin effect ± Higher equivalent resistance for higher frequency ± Because current-carrying area is smaller at high frequency Rev. Larger diameter implies lower resistance. aluminum. etc.Levine .  Material resistivity (copper. 2. current carrying cross sectional area). lower resistance  Temperature: resistance of metal increases about 1% for each higher degree Celsius ± Standard room temperature is 20º C (=68º F)  Wire Diameter (more generally. ± Soft drawn copper has large regular crystals of metal.)  Resistivity partly depends on metallic atomic arrangement ± Hard drawn (³work hardened´) copper has small irregular metal crystals.8. but it is less damaged by handling or installation.Page 21 ©1996-2005. R.

Flux linkaage is measured in voltsec.  L is very slightly dependent on frequency...g.. 2.  Inductance is the ratio of the total ³flux linkage´ to the current. L depends on geometric shape and separation of conductors. but usually non-magnetic materials (µ/µo=1) are used ± Some older cables were made with a magnetic alloy (e. indirectly due to skin effect Rev.Inductance L Depends On. and is found by integrating the magnetic field intensity over a suitable surface between the two conductors  In general.³permalloy´) built in between the current carrying wires.Page 22 ©1996-2005. R. Major types are: ± Parallel round/cylinder wires (usually ³twisted pair´) ± Co-axial cable (outer and inner cylindrical conductors)  Use of magnetic materials ± Magnetic materials in the field region can affect L.Levine .8.

Conductance G Depends on.  Intrinsic resistance of insulation material  Thickness of the insulation. divided by voltage.Levine . 2.  ³Leakage´ conductance is ratio of wire-to-wire leakage current..Page 23 ©1996-2005.8. R.  Conductive impurities such as water (particularly with dissolved ions) which can permeate through the plastic under some conditions ± Much more serious problem with older porous pulp or fiber (cotton or silk) insulation  ³Wet´ cable can be dried out by use of dry nitrogen (N2) gas under continuous pressure from an evaporating tank of liquid nitrogen  Slightly temperature dependent Rev.. It is determined by«. Thicker insulation gives lower G value.

C depends on geometric shape and separation distance of conductors  Dielectric permittivity ³epsilon´ r of the insulation.8.  Capacitance is the ratio of the electric charge (on the surface of one conductor) to the voltage between the two conductors  In general. for a more fundamental physical description of why dielectric properties depend on frequency.Levine . chapters 10...II.  Slight increase if water molecules permeate the insulation  Frequency dependence due to skin effect and material properties. Vol. Most plastic insulation materials have relative r =I/Io)(³dielectric constant´) value in range 3 to 8. Rev. See Feynman Lectures on Physics. 2.Page 24 ©1996-2005.  Significantly depends on temperature. R. compared to air. 11 and 32.Capacitance C Depends On.

Rev. then the velocity of any arbitrary waveform is the same. a non-sinusoidal waveform can have its different frequency components arrive with different delays. for a transverse electromagnetic wave (propagation parallel to the wires) in a lossless (non-resistive. perfectly insulated) line. If the phase velocity of different frequencies is different.Page 25 ©1996-2005. c ! 1 / IQ m  The wave speed described here is the ³phase velocity´ of a test sine wave -. the wave speed is lower than for non-loaded wires. R. thus changing the received waveform. or lines with other components inserted periodically*. 2. when loading coils (inductors) are connected in series in the wires at intervals of 6000 ft.not the velocity of a general waveform ± If the phase velocity is the same for all frequency components. the phase velocity varies greatly at different test frequencies ± Therefore. then the waveform of a traveling wave will be modified after traveling different distances!  For lossy lines. (an effect called ³dispersion´) * For example.Wave Speed cm= 1/(LC)  The wave speed depends on electrical parameters of the insulation for most practical wires and cables  Regardless of shape.Levine .8.

Rev. a higher data rate does correspond to a waveform with a higher bandwidth.Levine .) are unchanged. by changing the type of modulation (e. R. 2. We loosely call this higher ³data speed´ although the term ³data rate´ or ³bit rate´ is more accurate and appropriate  The bit rate capacity of a channel is sometimes called its ³bandwidth´ although the term ³bit rate´ is more accurate and appropriate  When all other factors (type of modulation. etc.8. from two level to 4 level coding) one can change the bandwidth of a signal without changing its digital bit rate..Page 26 ©1996-2005.g. However. A channel which can transmit more bits/second can transmit the same data file in a shorter time.Data Transmission ³Speed´  The wave speed or time delay depends on physical parameters of the transmission system  The data rate (data bits per second) affects the time required to transmit a fixed amount of data.

The signal is reduced in amplitude as it travels along the wires.  More practical method to combat dispersion. much smaller ratio than R/L.  A more practical method to improve transmission line loss is to artificially increase L by installing ³loading coils´ described later. 2.  G/C is normally a much. Equalizers combine various internally delayed copies of the received waveform to compensate for dispersion. has the same loss and wave speed (phase shift or time delay) at all frequencies. even with amplifiers. R. It is therefore distortionless (no change in waveform shape). The simplest modification to achieve the same ratio with R/L is to use low resistance insulation between the wires (to increase G). for modems and other waveform sensitive devices. but then the overall power loss is too much to be economically interesting. They stay in phase with each other. Rev. since all frequency components are reduced proportionately in amplitude and have the same time delay.Page 27 ©1996-2005. has been to use adaptive equalizers. but the waveform is otherwise unchanged.8.Levine .Lossy Distortionless Line  A transmission line having the following ratio of parameters: R/L=G/C.

ohmic series (loop) resistance R is ratio of longitudinal voltage drop to longitudinal current ± When two conductors are far separated in comparison to their diameter or width. Zo is larger  Zo depends on geometry  For a transverse electromagnetic wave (propagation parallel to the wires) in a lossless (non-resistive. perfectly insulated) ³square´ parallel plate transmission line.) connect. or lines with material µ or properties dependent on frequency or temperature. some of the wave power will be reflected and some will continue into the next section of transmission line  Rev. 2. R.Levine . approximately ± That is an approximation assuming all significant electric and magnetic field is almost completely confined in the space between the two parallel plates   Geometry with increased distance between conductors has higher Zo value. V is transverse voltage (wire-towire). insulation type. the Zo will be different if these parameters change When two line sections with different Zo values (due to change in wire diameter. In contrast. I is longitudinal current.Characteristic Impedance Zo=(L/C)  Zo is ratio of V/I in a traveling wave.8. etc. For lossy lines.Page 28 ©1996-2005. Zo= (µ/) = 377.

 Via theoretical calculations of surge impedance. Rev.Page 29 ©1996-2005. etc. purely resistive (current and voltage inphase) is often used as the nominal surge impedance in technical specification documents.  In modern telephone cables.Nominal Zo for Subscriber Loop  In the early days of the telephone. 1. ± Despite many variations when comparing different types of wire and cable. and each wire is coated with plastic insulation.2µF . 2.8. Theoretical surge impedance of this pair is about 300 . the two telephone wires of a loop were installed far apart on a ³crossarm´ of a telephone pole. we see that wires with centers separated in air by about 5 times the wire radius will have approx Zo=600 . surge impedance ± The measured surge impedance varies slightly with frequency due to changes in skin depth with frequency.. Zo=600. etc. Wire centers were separated by 20 or more times the diameter of the wires.Levine 900.  Resistor-capacitor circuit model often used to better represent an average length subscriber loop terminated in a central office subscriber card. wires are typically separated by about 3 wire diameters. R.

Rev. 5th not shown). 5th.8. Also. allows the installation technician to separate individual subscriber loop pairs more easily for installation purposes. 2.  Twisting each individual pair in a cable into a helix with different pitch (length of one turn of the helix) helps minimize induction cross talk.Page 30 ©1996-2005.Levine . ± Twisted pairs also hold the two wires comprising the same loop in close proximity.  Coupling can be neutralized by ³transposing´ the second pair of wires at the midpoint of installed length  Third pair of wires can be transposed in four sections. thus reducing the area susceptible to magnetic induction. R. Similarly more transpositions can be used for the 4th.Transpositions and Helices  A second wire pair installed on the same cross arms produced strong magnetic field coupling (cross-talk) due to the magnetic field from both loops sharing the space in between the wires. and succeeding pairs (4th.

and an electromagnetic wave arrives at the joint from one side ± Part of the power will travel through the joint into the second transmission line ± Part of the power will be reflected back towards the source  If the reflected wave occurs in a purely unidirectional wire pair. ± The echo canceller determines the time delay.) for each new telephone call. R. 2.8. amplitude and polarity (+ or -) of the echo waveforms. this may not be a problem ± Example: one unidirectional pair of a two-pair (4 wire) system  If the reflected wave occurs in a bi-directional wire pair. etc. Rev. ± In dialed call service. and generates a canceling signal by means of digital signal processing (DSP).  We try to prevent echo. the echo canceller must adaptively re-adjust its parameters (time delay. but when it occurs the best present remedy is an echo canceller. or can get into the ³return´ unidirectional wire pair via a 2-to-4 wire conversion point (a ³hybrid´ or directional coupler).Page 31 ©1996-2005.Wave Reflections  When two transmission lines having different values of Zo are joined. the participants may perceive an echo.Levine .

19 ga wire looses approx 20% of section input power (leaving 79. 2.Levine . so they use logarithms: loss of 1 dB per mi. It does not merely mean ³large change. There is a uniform percentage power loss per unit length. yields a total loss of 3 dB (corresponding to about 1/2 of original input power) *The word ³exponentially´ is a jargon term implying a change of a fixed percentage for each km of wire.6 km) section (this corresponds to ~1 dB/mi)  3 mi of wire delivers 0.´ Rev. or about 1/2 of original power  Engineers don¶t like to do tedious repeated multiplication.794y0.4% output) for each 1 mi (1.Proportional Decrease In Power  Wire to wire (transverse) voltage decreases exponentially* with distance.8.794y0.794 = 0. R. added 3 times for 3 miles.50056.  For a 1 kHz test signal.Page 32 ©1996-2005.

a ³loss´ of power)  For 1 mi of 19 ga wire loop using 1 kHz test signal. Strictly speaking.8. Transmission gain could also theoretically be produced by wire with negative resistance! Rev. R.Page 33 ©1996-2005.Levine .6 dB/km) gain (+1 dB/mi loss)  Also corresponds to input-output voltage ratio 1. this ³gain´ will be a negative number (that is.122/1 (or 1/0.794)  Corresponds to -1 dB/mi (-0.Transmission Loss  ³Loss´ is usually expressed in dB for convenience in adding total logarithmic loss for a chain of devices ± simpler than multiplying the numerical input/output ratios for a chain of sections  For a length of wire or cable. negative loss is ³gain´ or amplification. input to output power ratio is 1.26/1 = 1/0.89) for a mile of 19 ga wire * Be careful about often careless and confusing usage of minus sign. transmission* ³gain´ in dB is: 10log10 (output power/input power)  With output lower than input power. 2.

At 1 kHz: AWG gauge Loss (dB/mi) 19 1 22 1. 2..79 24 2.8..Transmission Loss Also Depends On.  Wire diameter (gauge).Page 34 ©1996-2005. R.1  Temperature (due primarily to increased R) ± Loss per mi (or per km) is greater at higher temperature Rev.2 100 6.2  Frequency (due primarily to skin effect R) 19 ga Frequency (kHz) Loss (dB/mi) 1 1 10 3.Levine .

2.)  Additional loss due to this insertion of another device is the so-called insertion loss  Insertion loss and transmission loss are the same in a chain of devices with the same surge impedance ± that is. R. (resistive) as a nominal approximate value for certain test purposes Rev.8. uniform ³characteristic impedance´or ³surge impedance´ at all points in the transmission chain ± Not accurate throughout the audio frequency range. the same ratio of V/I at all connection points ± That is. but telephone systems often approximate the surge impedance Zo of wire pair by using 600 .Page 35 ©1996-2005. an amplifier.Levine .³Insertion´ Loss  Conceptually think of ³breaking´ the chain of equipment and inserting another device of interest (more wire. etc.

2 0.9 0.5 0. 2.Exponential Losses in Transmission Line 1 0.8.8 0.1 0 0 1 2 x Rev.6 P( x ) 0.4 0.7 0.3 0.Levine 3 4 . R.Page 36 ©1996-2005.

Levine 3 4 .Page 37 ©1996-2005. R.8. 2.Linear Loss Described Using Logarithmic dB 1 T(x)=10log(P(x)) 0 1 T( x ) 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 x Rev.

20 mA or more is desirable. signal power falls to near noise power level.Levine .Loop Length  Subscriber Loop length is usually limited by dc loop current (so-called ³resistance limit´) ± At least 5 to 10 mA needed to properly operate microphone and tone dial in a telephone set. trunk length is usually limited by signal loss ± This can be corrected by amplification. ± In some cases. so there is no theoretical physical limit from this cause (of course.  In contrast.Page 38 ©1996-2005. the overall design of the equipment is normally done so that dc current is not the limiting factor. R.) ± Longer trunks require more amplifiers » Trunk wire with high loss requires amplifiers (one type of repeater) with higher gain and/or closer spacing ± When dc current is used in trunks to power repeaters. the signal delay is limited due to call processing signal requirements (even while speech delay is not yet a problem) to 1. 2.8. Rev.5 or 2 milliseconds for some switching devices such as remote line modules or concentrators used with telecom switches. etc.

in theory. The example here considers only amplification.Page 39 ©1996-2005. cable ± In digital transmission systems. the effects of thermal ³noise´ and interference will be severe  If the signal is amplified too high before transmission.  One very high gain amplifier could. compensate for the loss of any length of line  But if the signal gets too small before further amplification.Conflicting Objectives  Amplifiers are used in analog transmission systems to compensate for power loss in transmission wire. 2.8. the voltage will be huge (and possibly even dangerous!)  The cost of a very high gain amplifier is also much greater than a low gain amplifier  The optimum engineering-economic arrangement is to use a number of amplifiers of moderate gain.Levine . R. inserted at equal distances into the transmission wires Rev. dispersion and other waveform changes must also be compensated by repeaters.

2. or sometimes by merely using a spool of wire or cable of the correct length. a Line Build-Out (LBO) network is connected into the end. resistors and capacitors.Page 40 ©1996-2005. so unit cost is moderate ± Input signal is never too low compared to noise & interference ± If the first or last section of line is not the standard interval length.Optimum Number of Amplifiers is Set by Economics.Levine . R. LBO can be made using inductors. ± An example showing economic optimization of repeater spacing will be given on the practice quiz Rev. as well as Technology  A definite cost model is required ± changing technology may change the cost model  Usual practice is to place amplifiers (repeaters) periodically at fixed distance intervals so: ± Required amplifier gain is moderate.8.

 Both Pupin and Campbell (and others) recognized this about 1900. reliable devices.8. which is the typical transmission line case. Loading coils have mostly been removed since then. thus decreasing the first loss term (R/2)(C/L). used widely until the 1960s. but are still occasionally found in place on old outside plant wiring. Increasing L is the most practical alternative. loss would decrease. If we could increase L (or decrease C or R).  The first term is biggest. R. Rev. and added lumped inductive ³loading coils´ in series with the telephone wires.Page 41 ©1996-2005.Approximate Loss Formula  For (G/C)<<(R/L). dB loss per km is approximately proportional to [(R/2) (C/L)] + [(G/2) (L/C)] + other smaller terms.Levine . 2.  Loading Coils are passive.

Page 42 ©1996-2005. R.Pupin Loading Coils  Practical approximation to increased L uses ³lumped´ series inductors ± Most widely used spacing interval is 6000 feet (1.848 km) » European systems use 2 km spacing ± Most widely used inductor is 88 mH. since access and enclosures were already available at these locations. toroidal shape » There is some added resistance due to thin wire in the loading coil. Rev. 2.8. but overall transmission loss is improved  Used historically for baseband transmission on both subscriber loops and trunks  The 6000 ft spacing of loading coils led directly to the same spacing later for T-1 digital carrier repeater units.Levine .