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INTRODUCTION .

THE FISSION PROCESS A neutron travels at high speed towards a uranium-235 nucleus. 1 0 n 235 92 U .

1 0 n 235 92 U .THE FISSION PROCESS The neutron strikes the nucleus which then captures the neutron.

THE FISSION PROCESS The nucleus changes from being uranium-235 to uranium-236 as it has captured a neutron. 236 92 U .

THE FISSION PROCESS The uranium-236 nucleus formed is very unstable. It transforms into an elongated shape for a short time. .

THE FISSION PROCESS The uranium-236 nucleus formed is very unstable. . It transforms into an elongated shape for a short time.

1 0 141 56 Ba n 1 0 n 92 36 Kr 1 0 n .THE FISSION PROCESS It then splits into 2 fission fragments and releases neutrons.

THE FISSION PROCESS 235 U + 0n 92 U + 0n 92 1 1 141 Ba + 36Kr + 30 n 56 Cs + 37Rb + 20 n 55 96 1 92 1 235 138 .

NUCLEAR CHAIN REACTION .

CONSTITUENTS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT AND LAYOUT .

Eg. ` Coolant:.Uranium is the basic fuel. .Used to control the rate of reactions.The structure around the reactor core to protect it from outside intrusion. Eg. ` Control Rods:.A liquid or gas circulating through the core so as to transfer the heat from it. Heavy water or Graphite. hafnium or boron which are neutron absorbing materials. cadmium. ` Containment:. Moderator:Used to slow down the neutrons from the fission process.NUCLEAR REACTOR ` ` Fuel:.

COMMONLY USED POWER REACTORS BOILING WATER REACTOR PRESSURISED WATER REACTOR TYPES OF REACTOR PRESSURISED HEAVY WATER REACTOR GAS COOLED REACTOR LIQUID METAL COOLED REACTOR .

Can¶t meet sudden increase of load. Ordinary water is used as both moderator and coolant. ` ` ` .BOILING WATER REACTOR BOILING WATER REACTOR ` Fuel used is rich in uranium oxide. Low thermal efficiency.

PRESSURISED WATER REACTOR PRESSURISED WATER REACTOR ` PWRs use ordinary water as both coolant and moderator. ` ` . Large reactors have about 150-250 fuel assemblies with 80-100 tonnes of uranium. A PWR has fuel assemblies of 200-300 rods each.

PRESSURISED HEAVY WATER REACTOR PRESSURISED HEAVY WATER REACTOR ` It uses natural uranium (0. It uses heavy water (D2O) as the moderator.7% U-235) oxide as fuel. Primary and secondary circuits are similar to PWR PHWR reactors can readily be run on recycled uranium. ` ` ` .

5-3. enriched to 2.5%. The fuel used is uranium oxide pellets. in stainless steel tubes. ` ` ` . Carbon dioxide is used as a coolant.GAS COOLED REACTOR GAS COOLED REACTOR ` These are the second generation of British gascooled reactors. Graphite is used as a moderator.

` ` . Low-enriched uranium oxide made up into fuel assemblies 3.LIGHT WATER GRAPHITE-MODERATED REACTOR (RBMK) ` It developed from plutonium production reactors. Graphite is used as a moderator and water as a coolant.5 metres long.

NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IN COMMERCIAL OPERATION .