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JAYESH.T.J ROLL NO 26 S2 MCA LMCST

CONTENTS
y Introduction y Different wireless networks y Different standards y Wireless fidelity(Wi-Fi) y Wireless access point y Two main protocols y Security y References

Introduction
y What is a wireless network?
y A technology that enables two or more entities to

communicate without network cabling

Different Wireless Networks


y IrDA (Infrared Data Association)
y Uses beams in the infrared light spectrum

y Bluetooth
y Uses 2.45 gigahertz radio waves, but emits weak signals y Limits distance to 10 feet, but travels through walls

y HomeRF (SWAP)

developed by businesses

y 6 voice channels and 1 data channel y Slow, and limited range, but cheap

IrDA (Infrared Data Association)


y Uses beams of light in the infrared spectrum y Remote controls y Fairly reliable and low-cost y Drawback: It is a line-of-sight technology y less interference y Drawback: one-to-one technology y You can send data only between two things at once (but increased security?)

Bluetooth
y The magic number: 2.45 gigahertz
y

Radio-frequency also used by baby monitors, garage door openers, and cordless phones

y How do you avoid interference? y Bluetooth sends weak signals of 1 milliwatt


y

Powerful cell phones use 3 watts But they can go through walls better than others

y Bluetooth devices limited to 10 meters


y

HomeRF (SWAP)
y Shared Wireless Access Protocol (SWAP)
y

Developed by an alliance of businesses

y 6 voice channels and one data channel y The data channel is the 802.11 wireless-Ethernet specification by the IEEE

y One drawback: SWAP can only be used with

computers

y Printers and such need to be attached to a computer and

used as a resource

HomeRF (SWAP)
y Advantages:
y y y

Cheap, easy-to-install Allows multiple-networks in the same location Can encrypt data Not very fast (typically limited to 1 Mbps) Limited Range (75 to 125 ft) Physical obstructions (walls, large metal objects) cause huge interference issues Difficult to integrate into existing wired networks

y Drawbacks:
y y y

Different Standards
y 802.11 -- applies to wireless LANs and provides 1 or 2 Mbps transmission in the 2.4 GHz band. y 802.11a -- an extension to 802.11 that applies to wireless LANs and provides up to 54 Mbps in the 5GHz band. y 802.11b (also referred to as 802.11 High Rate or Wi-Fi) -- an extension to 802.11 that applies to wireless LANS and provides 11 Mbps transmission (with a fallback to 5.5, 2 and 1 Mbps) in the 2.4 GHz band. y 802.11g -- applies to wireless LANs and provides 20+ Mbps in the 2.4 GHz band.

802.11a
y Pros
y Speed!
y y

y Cons
y Cost
y y

54 MBit Support for high bandwidth applications. Ex: voice, video, & large image files. Standards such as 802.11b & 802.11g are in the 2.5 GHz band, which is getting congested. 802.11a AP s can handle more users because of the increased throughput.

Higher cost of equipment. More equipment needed High Bandwidth (5 GHz) affects range. Range of 60 ft. 802.11b is already widely accepted and a operates on a different frequency than b & g. They will not work together.

y Coverage
y

y Less Interference
y

y Inoperability
y

y More End-Users
y

802.11b
y Pros
y Range
y y

y Cons
y RF Interference y Lower Throughput
y

300 ft. in a building 1000 ft. outside

y Well accepted standard y Low Cost y Availability of Equipment


y y

1-11 MBit (Up to 22 MBit with special equipment.) Only 4 Step-downs

AP s, NIC s, & Accessories 802.11b works with the new 802.11g equipment

y Interoperability
y

802.11g
y Pros y Faster
y

54 MBit

y Cons y No definite standard yet.


y

y Interoperability y Fledgling support y Companies such as Cisco, Linksys, Apple, & D-link have g equipment. y Same advantages as b.

Coming Summer 2003

y Pre-standard

equipment is not guaranteed to work.

Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi)


y Essentially, this technology is a variation of the

IEEE 802.11 specification known as 802.11b y Focuses on Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
y y

High data rate (max of 11 Mbps) In the case of interference, speed drops in halves (11 Mbps to 5.5 Mbps to 2 Mbps to 1 Mbps)

Wi-Fi
y Advantages:
y y y y y

Fast (11 Mbps) Reliable Long Range (up to 1000 ft outdoors, 400 ft indoors) Easy integration to wired networks Compatible with original 802.11 DSSS standard Speed may fluctuate

y Disadvantages:
y

Wireless Access Point


y LINKSYS
y Model No. BEFW11S4 ver. 2 y Supports y IEEE 802.3 (10BaseT) y IEEE 802.3u (100BaseTX) y IEEE 802.11b (Wireless) y Built-in router capability y Obtains a Clarkson IP and uses DHCP y Built-in 4 port switch y Fully-configurable through simple web interface

Connecting To a Legacy Network


Access Points connect the wireless network to the legacy network.

Two Main Protocols (Internet)


y UDP (User Datagram Protocol) y Fast, bare-bones, not reliable or friendly
y

Can lose data at any time

y TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) y Slower, many features, very reliable


y

All data will get to the other side

Security (Encryption, Content Filtering, Privacy, etc.)


Partition The Network
y A safe practice is to create two separate networks. A

private network for day to day business and a network for public access. Both can be wireless. These networks can talk to one another through a proxy server that will protect the private network from malicious attacks via the public network.

Security (Encryption, Content Filtering, Privacy, etc.)


Encryption y Encryption on the pubic network can be used but would create administrative overhead. Encryption keys would have to be changed regularly and anyone using their own laptop would have to be given the key. y Encryption works best in a network that does not allow people to use their own laptops. y Encryption increases privacy, but can be thwarted, either by software, or by gaining access to a PC configured with wireless and writing down the key.

Security (Encryption, Content Filtering, Privacy, etc.)


Content Filtering & Proxy Servers
Web content filtering that has generally been software on the desktop would have to be handled by a server if people are allowed to use their own laptops. Proxy servers allow you to control what information people have access to. This is a good practice anyway, allowing you to control at a global level what information travels over your network. It also allows you to track usage.

Security (Encryption, Content Filtering, Privacy, etc.)


Viruses and Hacker
y Wireless does not add any additional threat in the

way of viruses. y Anyone, anywhere can attack a network that is connected to the Internet. Wireless does not increase that chance. Security measures such as firewalls, can reduce the risk.

References
y http://www.howstuffworks.com/wireless-

network.htm y http://www.80211planet.com/columns/article/0,4000,1781_961181,0 0.html y http://www.80211planet.com/columns/article/0,4000,1781_947661, 00.html y http://www.pcausa.com

References
y CISCO Packet Magazine, 2nd Quarter 2002

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/about/ac123/ac114/ac173 /ac168/about_cisco_packet_issue_home.html y National Institute of Standards and Technology Wireless Network Security http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/drafts/draft-sp80048.pdf

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