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‡ A smart grid delivers electricity from suppliers
to consumers using two-way digital twotechnology to control appliances at consumers' homes to save energy, reduce cost and increase reliability and transparency.

‡ Self healing ‡ Empower and incorporate the consumer ‡ Tolerant of attack ‡ Provides power quality needed by 21st century consumers ‡ Accommodates a wide variety of generation options (like green energy) ‡ Fully enables maturing electricity markets .

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SYSTEM INSTABILITY  BLACK START SUPPORT FROM SMART HOUSES  INTEGRATION OF FORECASTING TECHNIQUES . VARIABLE TARIFF-BASED LOAD TARIFF ENERGY USAGE MONITORING AND FEEDBACK  REAL-TIME PORTFOLIO IMBALANCE REDUCTION REAL OFFERING RESERVE CAPACITY TO THE TSO  DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONGESTION MANAGEMENT  DISTRIBUTION GRID CELL ISLANDING IN CASE OF HIGHERHIGHER.

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‡ Independent processors in each component at each subsubstation and power plant ‡ Sensors are connected to all other components in the system ‡ Own state and of all other components are known and communicated .

‡On addition of new devices to the system device parameters are automatically updated ‡The new component also has a built-in processor .

TYPICAL BLACK-OUT SEQUENCE BLACK‡ a sudden outage of major lines occurs ‡ further outage due to overload leaves the system ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ imbalanced frequency declines with large generation load imbalance generation is taken off-line offisland blacks out long time taken to restore power .

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‡ emergency imposed on the system ‡ frequency & load/generation imbalance is determined and total outage is prevented .

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Distribution system needs many changes to come in sync with requirements for the implementation of smart grid DESIRED OPTIMISATIONS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ DEMAND OPTIMISATION DELIVERY OPTIMIZATION ASSET OPTIMIZATION RENEWABLES OPTIMIZATION .

‡ ‡ ‡ Refers to monitoring. control & communication functions Important aspects of DA are in areas of protection and switching Helps in quickly reconfigure interconnected network of feeders FEATURES OF DA Can detect fault current and voltages Can help in self-healing of the grid selfCan communicate with one another .

PROCESS OF DA  DATA COLLECTION  DATA VALIDATION  ESTABLISH WEATHER SENSITIVITY  DATA CATEGORIZATION  CALIBRATION .

Small Office & commercial building sector responsible for over 50% of total electricity consumption ‡ Homes. offices and commercial buildings treated as an interconnected network instead of single units ‡ Able to communicate.‡ Residential. interact & negotiate with both customers & energy devices in local grid ‡ Grid operated more efficiently as consumption is better predicted .

FEATURES OF SMART HOME MICROGENERATION SMART METERS LOCAL STORAGE UNITS .

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‡ ‡ ‡ A communication technique to automatically collect the meter readings & other relevant data from meters AMR has benefits beyond meter reading It provides crucial data on an insight into other areas of operation PROCESS OF AMR ‡ ‡ DATA RETRIVAL COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES ‡ RF BASED COMMUNICATION ‡ TELEPHONE BASED COMMUNICATION .

SERVICE RESTORATION FUNCTION SMARTER METER . SMARTER METER SECURITY ISSUES DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND ALARM PROCESSING FUNCTION 2.‡ ‡ ‡ 1. FAULT LOCATION FUNCTION 3.

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