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. vortices are created at the back of the body and detach periodically from either side of the body. In this flow.` It is an unsteady flow that takes place in special flow velocities (according to the size and shape of the cylindrical body).

The fluid flow past the object creates alternating low-pressure vortices on the downstream side of the object. The object will tend to move toward the low-pressure zone.` Vortex shedding is caused when a fluid flows past a blunt object. .

€ Vortex Shedding is an effect of: y Viscosity y Reynolds Number* .

Low Re: viscous forces dominate flow High Re: inertial forces dominate flow VuD Re ! Q V ! density D ! diameter u ! velocity Q ! absolute viscosity € .€ € € Reynolds Number (Re) is a dimensionless quantity Relates the inertial forces to the viscous forces in a flow.

Smooth (Laminar) flow for Re < Recrit (~500.€ As the flow starts around the cylinder.000) Flow transitions around Recrit Turbulent flow for Re > Recrit critical Reynolds number A Reynolds number at which the flow of a fluid changes from laminar to turbulent € € € . the local Re increases as a function of the local velocity and distance from the Leading Edge (LE).

€ Low-pressure region forms in the re-circulation bubble.€ After the flow separates due to viscous effects. a re-circulation bubble forms at the Trailing Edge (TE) of the cylinder. € A vortex forms in the re-circulation to equalize the pressure. € Disturbances in the flow cause the vortex to be shed creating a new vortex to equalize the pressure from the preceding vortex .

es/uploads/Galego/flow_visualizations. y INCREASE in velocity = DECREASE in pressure y DECREASE in velocity = INCREASE in pressure At Low Re (< 400).usc.€ € Change in velocity affects local pressure. y Shed vortices will form the Von Karman Vortex Street y At higher Re (>400).pdf . the Von Karman Vortex Street disappears due to turbulence Source: http://chaos. the pressure oscillations are strong.

diameter of the cylinder and the frequency at which vortices are shed into the Von Karman Vortex Street.€ The Strouhal number relates the velocity of the freestream velocity. fd St ! u .

21 € Source: http://hmf.€ As shown below.htm .fr/travaux/CD0102/travaux/optmfn/gpfmho/01-02/grp1/index.enseeiht. the Strouhal Number varies with Reynolds number Commonly accepted value for the Strouhal Number for most flows is 0.

Flow Around a Cylinder Symmetric vortices lead to in-line motion Asymmetric vortices lead to inline and cross-flow motion Increasing STEADY flow .

Flow Around a Cylinder Increasing OSCILLATING flow Applicable for Wave Induced Currents U max Twave KC ! D Generally wave action does NOT promote in-line VIV .

VIV can result This can lead to fatigue of welded pipe joints The Vortex shedding frequency is described by the Strouhal Number: ` ` fv D St ! U fv = Vortex shedding frequency D = Pipe diameter U = Flow velocity .Vortex Induced Vibration ` If the vortex shedding frequency coincides with a multiple of the natural frequency of the span.

Vortex Induced Vibration .

St & Re Numbers Relationship between St and Re Numbers Region of interest for most pipeline applications St } 0.2 ` .

e. if the length to diameter ratio.Rule of Thumb As a rough rule of thumb. i. there may be a risk of VIV . L/D < 40 then VIV will not be a problem ` ` Otherwise.

The fences are usually located in a helical pattern. in air flow with a speed in the critical range. vortex shedding can drive the chimney into violent oscillations that can damage or destroy the chimney.` Tall chimneys constructed of thin-walled steel tube can be sufficiently flexible that. The fences prevent strong vortex shedding with low separation frequency . These chimneys can be protected from this phenomenon by installing a series of fences (sometimes called strakes) at the top and running down the exterior of the chimney for approximately 20% of its length.