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# Stoichiometry: Mathematics of chemical formulas and equations

mole = (mol) 602000000000000000000000

Mole
 A mole is just a number
pair = 2 trio = 3 quartet = 4 dozen = 12 baker·s dozen = 13 gross = 144

23 6.02x10

How BIG is a mole?
There are ~ 6.6 billion people on Earth How many Earths would it take to equal the population of 1 mole?

9.12 x 1013

They would create a sphere larger than Earth! . . . If you had a mole of cats .

06 x 109 years . If you had a mole of \$\$\$\$\$ and you spent \$800 billion dollars a day how many years would it take to spend a MOLEion dollars? 2.

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 If you had a mole of H2O could you swim in it? NO! Water molecules are so small that a mole of H2O = 18ml .

How small are atoms?  There are more atoms in one gram of salt than grains of sand on all the beaches of all the oceans in all the world. .

 Just one granule of sugar contains 1 x 1017 molecules  Each time you take a breath of air. you inhale about 2 x 1022 molecules of nitrogen and 5 x 1021 molecules of oxygen. .

 In chemistry we don·t work with individual atoms or molecules because they are too small to be weighed or measured  We have to work with LOTS of atoms in order to measure them THAT·s WHERE THE MOLE COMES IN! .

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02 x 10 23 C atoms = 12g C .Gram ATOMic Mass  mass in grams of 1 mole of atoms of an element  In other words«« 1 mol C atoms = 6.

. 1 mole = 6.Practice Remember .02x1023 atoms or molecules = ______ g from the periodic table . .

Stoichiometry of Chemical Formulas .

Gram Formula Mass Gram Molecular Mass Molar Mass  mass in grams of 1 mole of a substance  In other words . . Add it all up! 1 mole of NaCl = 58g = 6.02x1023 molecules of H20 . .02x1023 particles of NaCl 1 mole of H2O = 18g = 6.

Now«..  Use the gram formula mass and the gram atomic mass to determine ² how many moles or atoms of an element are found in some mass of a substance ² how much mass that element contributes to the mass of the entire substance Use factor label & follow the units! .

 If you have 1 mole of of (NH4)2SO4 ² How many moles of N are there? ² How many moles of H? ..Stoichiometry of Chemical Formulas  If you have 1 molecule of (NH4)2SO4 ² How many atoms of N are there? ² How many atoms of H? SO«.

1 mole = 6.02x1023 atoms or molecules = ______ gfm from the pt . . .Practice Remember .

4L .02 x 1023 molecules and occupies a volume of 22.Molar Volume  1 mole of ANY gas Gases ONLY O2 (g) @STP NH3 (g) He (g) contains 6.

 STP standard temperature & pressure 0oC or 273K 101.3kPa or 1 atm .

 Gases also have mass 1 mole of O2(g) = 32g 1 mole of NH3(g) = 17g @ we can calculate Density! .Remember . . .

THEN calculate D! .m/ D= v  A sample of oxygen contains 3 moles of particles at STP what is its density?  2 steps ² Convert moles to mass AND volume ² Calculate density  If mass or volume is given. use it and convert the other««.

Remember .02x1023 atoms or molecules = gfm = 22. . 1 mole = 6.4L (g) . .

.Stoichiometry of Chemical Equations  The study of quantitative relationships that can be derived from chemical equations. .µ . ´it·s a simple matter of weight ratios .

Stoichiometry cookies  If you look at chemical equations as recipes it may be easier to understand that ² changing the amount of a reactant will change the amount of the product IN THE SAME RATIO! .

they are only rearranged to form new substances.  # atoms on reactant side = # atoms on product side ² Law of conservation of E  E on the reactant side = E on the product side .Examining Molar Relationships in Balanced Equations 6CO2 + 12 H2O + 2804kJ p 6O2 + C6H12O6 +6H20 Balanced equations ² Law of conservation of mass / matter  ATOMS are not created or destroyed during a chemical reaction.

Mole Relationships Practice .Mole .

Types of Chemical Reactions .

SYNTHESIS Reaction  2 or more reactants combine to build a single product General Formula: A + B p AB 3H2 + N2 p 2NH3 .

Particle Diagram p .

DECOMPOSITION reaction  A compound is broken down into 2 or more simpler substances General Formula: AB p A + B 2H2O p 2H2 + O2 .

Particle Diagram p .

It becomes part of a compound as a product. General Formula: A + BX p B + AX Mg + CaBr2 p Ca + MgBr2 .SINGLE REPLACEMENT reaction  One of the reactants is a single element.

Particle Diagram p .

DOUBLE REPLACEMENT reaction  TWO elements switch places during the process of the reaction. General Formula: AB + CD p AD + CB LiCl + KBr p LiBr + KCl .

Particle Diagram p .

Combustion  Oxygen is always a reactant  CO2 and H2O are always products  _______ + O2 p CO2 + H2O .

Practice  2Al + 3CuSO4 p Al2(SO4)3 + 3Cu  2H2 + O2 p 2H2O  C12H22O11 p 11H2O + 12C  KCl + AgNO3 p KNO3 + AgCl  CH4 + 2O2 p CO2 + 2H2O .

The End .