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PROTEINS: Structure & Function

I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII.

Collagen Elastin Hemoglobin Myoglobin Insulin Glucagon Immunoglobulins

COLLAGEN
Most abundant protein in animals Water-insoluble fibers Has great tensile strength Major role: stressbearing component of connective tissues

3 aa/turn .COLLAGEN: A Triple Helix Structure 10 Structure -(-X Y G-). Y any aa .each chain is about 800 aa residues long 20 Structure .Left-handed -helix .3.X Pro/Hyp.Pitch: 10 Å .

3 chains are parallel & wind each other in a right-handed manner to form a triple-helical structure .intramolecular and intermolecular aldol covalent crosslinks .H-bond involving Hyp and Hyl residues .COLLAGEN: A Triple Helix Structure 30 Structure .

40 Structure Procollagen Tropocollagen Collagen Fibrils .

Diseases due to Collagen Defects Scurvy Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome India-rubberman .

has elastic properties Consists predominantly of nonpolar aa residues. 1/3 V + A.ELASTIN Connective tissue protein. rich in P Random coil conformation Intramolecular and intermolecular desmosine crosslinks . 1/3 G.

HEMOGLOBIN & MYOGLOBIN Hemeproteins Major role: Hemoglobin: O2 transport Myoglobin: O2 storage .

Heme Responsible to the red color of the blood Prosthetic group Porphyrin ring Centrally bound Fe+2 .

MYOGLOBIN Monomer Contains a heme 10 Structure: 153 aa 20 Structure: Helical 30 Structure: Globular .

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HEMOGLOBIN Tetramer: 2 2 Each subunit contains one heme 10 structure = 141 aa = 146 aa 20 structure: helical 30 structure: globular 40 structure: 4 folded chain in tetrahedral arrangement .

Oxygen Transport by Hemoglobin O2 and CO2 have different binding sites Oxyhemoglobin Carbaminohemoglobin Carboxyhemoglobin Methemoglobin .

Affinity of Oxygen to Hemoglobin & Myoglobin Hemoglobin: sigmoidal curve Myoglobin: hyperbolic curve Hemoglobin exhibits positive cooperative binding of O2 .

Sickle-Cell Anemia Genetically altered hemoglobin 6th aa of subunit Glu Val .

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INSULIN & GLUCAGON Regulatory proteins Endocrine hormones Insulin: B cells Glucagon: A cells Carbohydrate homeostasis .

Insulin Produced from -cells of Islets of Langerhans 2 polypeptide chain (51 aa residues) Intermolecular and intramolecular disulfide linkage Hypoglycemic hormone .

Glucagon Produced from -cells of Islets of Langerhans Single polypeptide chain (29 aa residues) Involved in increasing the blood levels of glucose .

Function .

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Diseases related to Insulin Hypoglycemia Hyperglycemia Diabetes mellitus .

IMMUNOGLOBULIN Defense proteins Also known as antibodies B lymphocyte: secrete antibodies .

Structure Y-shaped molecule Tetramer Interchain and Intrachain disulfide linkages Light Chain Heavy Chain Constant Region Variable Region .

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Classes of Immunoglobulins .

A bit information about Immune Response .

Diseases Autoimmune Diseases Inherited Immunodeficiency HIV .

Bubble Boy X-Linked Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID) .