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Chapter 24 A.P.E.S.

Is Dilution the Solution? ‡ Years ago polluting factors were moved to more remote locations ‡ Used taller smokestacks to disperse pollution further up into air so it would dissipate over a wide area & come down in ³harmless traces´ .

± Similar to filter on car or vacuum. ± Often stored in a ³baghouse´ . allowing clean air to pass thru.PARTICULATE REMOVAL 1.but bigger and more of them. Filters ± Cotton or fiberglass cloth traps particles from effluent stream (waste gas).

strength of electric field ± Still poses solid waste problems .depends on particle size. chemistry. Electrostatic precipitators ± Most common in powerplants ± Ash passes over electrodes & pick up an electrostatic surface charge ± Ash particles passed along & accumulate on a collecting plate that is removed and disposed of as solid waste in landfill ± 99% effective.PARTICULATE REMOVAL 2.

SULFUR REMOVAL 1. Energy source . Fuel Switching ‡ Use low sulfur fuel from softer coal ‡ Will affect jobs in areas that mine harder coals Difficult to ship. expensive Uncertain dangers Becoming more competitive ‡ Natural gas ‡ ‡ ‡ Nuclear power ‡ ‡ Alt.

expensive ‡ . and gasified to remove sulfur Creates water pollution that must be cleaned. Fuel Cleaning ‡ Coal can be crushed. washed.SULFUR REMOVAL 2.

Limestone Injection ‡ ‡ Mix limestone with coal before going to boiler CaCO3 reacts with sulfur to make CaSO3. or gypsum. Sometimes produces a residue called slag that reduces efficiency & must be disposed of ‡ . CaSO4.SULFUR REMOVAL 3.

Oil is sprayed into mix to ³start the fire´ Steam/water pipes are immersed in mix This makes burning more efficient & prevents build up of slag 90% of sulfur is captured by limestone & nitrogen cmpds are reduced due to lower temperatures used. Can use cheaper fuel (lignite) ‡ . ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Fluidized Bed Combustion 1 meter thick layer of coal & limestone cover perforated plate Air is forced up thru perforation to push coal & limestone upmaking it seem like a fluid.SULFUR REMOVAL 4.

SULFUR REMOVAL 5. Flue Gas Scrubbing (wet scrubbing) ± Crushed limestone. lime slurry. or alkali (sodium bicarbonate) are injected into gas stream ± Inexpensive & effective ± Maintenance is difficultchip off plaster like residue regularly ± Causes metal erosion of pipes ± Dispose of solid waste .

‡ ‡ . Dry alkali injection ‡ Spray dry sodium bicarbonate into gases Expensive Trade off.SULFUR REMOVAL 6.reduce air pollution problem but increase solid waste/water problem when wastes have to be disposed of.

hydrocarbons. & CO from your cars exhaust .NITROGEN OXIDE REMOVAL ‡ Staged burners ± Burn at slower rate reduces NOx ‡ Catalytic converters ± Use platinumpalladium-rhodium to remove 90% of NOx.

CLEAN AIR ACT ‡ 1963. national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) ‡ Primary standards. climate. crops.protect human health ‡ Secondary standardsprotect property. visibility. personal comfort .1st national air pollution legislation ‡ Revamped in 1970¶s ± Identified 6 criteria pollutants ± Est.


for cities that do not meet standards ± Toxic Air Pollutants ‡ Factories must reduce toxic pollutant production by 90% by 2003 ± Ozone Protection ‡ CFC¶s & CCl4 phased out. selling. Recovery & recycling programs for CFCs est. deadlines est. Hydrofluorocarbons phased out by 2030 ± Marketing pollution rights ‡ Corporations can offset their pollution levels by buying. and banking pollution ± Volatile organic cmpds .CLEAN AIR ACT ‡ Extensively revamped in 1990 ± Acid rain ‡ Cut SO2 by more than ½ from 1990-2000 ± Urban smog ‡ tailpipe emissions.

12 ppm(1 hr avg) to AIR ACT ‡ And yes« Changed again in 1997 ‡ Ambient ozone standards lowered from 0. nitrogen dioxide and particulates.edf.08 ppm (8 hr avg) ‡ Soot & dust emissions apply to particles 2. or trade pollution credits for sulfur dioxide. The expense of these credits is a strong incentive to utilities to decrease their emissions to reduce their overall costs. sell.htm . 10 previously ‡ Cap and Trade program devised by President Bush is designed to allow utilities not in compliance with EPA NAAQS to buy.5 microns vs. ‡ A timeline of the Clean Air Act: ‡ http://www.

Clean Air Act ‡ Title I .html Part A .Ozone Protection (replaced by Title VI) Part C .Clean Fuel Vehicles part does what« ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Title III .Acid Deposition Control Title V .Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards ± Part B .gov/air/oaq_caa.Emission Standards for Moving Sources ± Part A .Aircraft Emission Standards Be familiar with which ± Part C .Air Quality and Emission Limitations Part B .Stratospheric Ozone Protection .Permits Title VI .General Title IV .Plan Requirements for Nonattainment Areas ‡ Title II .Air Pollution Prevention and Control ± ± ± ± http://www.Prevention of Significant Deterioration of Air Quality Part D .epa.

Comparison of 1970 and 1999 Emissions .

notorious ³black town´ from mining dust. birth defects. gardens contaminated ‡ Copsa Mica.Other Countries« THE GOOD ‡ Sweden. Germany cut sulfur emissions by 2/3 ‡ Austria & Switzerland over 2/3 & they control motorcycle emissions ‡ 26 of 37 cities on the Global Environmental Monitoring System have decreased particulate levels ‡ 20 out of 37 have decreased sulfur emissions ‡ Cubatao.S. W. steel plant. THE BAD & THE UGLY ‡ Many other countries do not have air pollution controls or legislation. ‡ China. chemical & fertilizer companies.almost entire pop. standards ‡ S. invested money & reduced pollution significantly. end of military rule allowed people to voice concern. Czech Republic covered in smog most of the time. Romania. some places have particulate levels 9x those of max U. acid rain huge. N. uses coal cakes to heat home. decreased life expectancy . Brazil was called ³Valley of Death´ due to dangerous pollution from oil refinery. Poland.