Grammar Study

Prepared by Kartika Noez

and Noun Complements ‡ Peter gave Jane a book for her birthday S P IO DO O of Prep ‡ Jack is a doctor SC ‡ They elected him president OC ‡ The S.O. Objects.G-1 Check Subjects. and OC: N (phrase): Roses are beautiful plants Pronoun : You gave him the roses Gerund (phrases) : Growing roses is your favorite hobby. Inf (phases) : You like to grow roses Noun Clause : everyone says that you grow beautiful roses .

‡ Give the idea that an event or situation is in progress during a particular time. or often exists.Check the verb tenses TENSE FORM ‡ Simple Present ‡ Simple Past ‡ Simple Future ‡ The Continuous Tenses ‡ The Perfect Tenses TENSE MEANINGS ‡ Expresses an event or situation that exists now or that usually. ‡ Give the idea that one event happens or happened before another time or event.G-2 Check Subjects and Verbs -. always. . ‡ Expresses an event or situation that began and ended in the past. ‡ Expresses an event or situation that will happen at one particular time in the future.

SOME COMMON TIME MARKERS USED ON THE ³TOEFL´ ‡ Since ± often used with the perfect tenses. ‡ Yesterday ± Often used with the past tenses ‡ Today ± Often used with the present tenses.to indicate a particular time ‡ For ± often used with the perfect tenses or the simple tenses ± to indicate a duration of time ‡ Yet ± Often used with the perfect tenses ± in negative meanings and in questions ‡ Already ± Often used with the perfect tenses ± in affirmative meanings. .

SOME COMMON TIME MARKERS USED ON THE ³TOEFL´ (continued) ‡ Tomorrow ± Often used with the future tenses or with the present continuous tense when it refers to the future ‡ During . Not usually used with the perfect tenses. . ‡ Over the past few ± Often used with the present perfect tense to indicate time starting in the past and continuing to the present ‡ Usually ± Often used with the simple tenses to indicate habitual actions ‡ Now ± Often used with the present continuous tense.Often used with the simple and continuous tenses to show a duration of time.

‡ Passive 2: The whole pie was eaten S V .G-3 PASSive ‡ ActiVe: Clifford ate the whole pie S V DO ‡ Passive 1: The whole pie was eaten by Clifford S V O of Prep.

4 Check Modals and Modal-Like Verbs MODALS ‡ may ‡ might ‡ can ‡ could ‡ shall ‡ should ‡ would ‡ must ‡ will MODAL-LIKE VERBS be able to be able to be to/ought to/had better/ be supposed to used to have to/have got to be going to would like to would rather .G.

It has always been thought that cell mutation is a random event. During the early 1970s. geneticists find evidence to the contrary over the past few years. 3. Nutritionists currently believe that vitamin A and betacarotene aids in preventing some kinds of cancer. turning away from the highly processed foods that had been so popular in the past. 2. In 1968. . The Grapes of Wrath. John Steinbeck was gave the Nobel prize for literature for his acclaimed novel. The Swedish settlers who builded the first log cabin in the State of Delaware brought their logs with them from their homeland.REVIEW 1. however. 4. 5. the American public collectively has become health conscious.

G-5 Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrases consists of a preposition and an object. . Noun (phrs) : I sat by my mother Pronoun : I sat by her Gerund (phrs) : She entertains herself by reading. Noun Clause : I could tell from what you said that you are not interested in this book. NOTE: Infinitives cannot function as objects of prepositions.

(Many of these combinations are often referred to as two-word verbs. According to Max. Combinations are very common She is capable of almost anything . Dolores will be late Certain verb + prep.G-5 Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases (Cont¶d) Some prepositions contain more than one word and are called compound prepositions.) Jerry looked up the word in the dictionary Some Adj + prep. Combinations having special meanings are very common.

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