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An embedded system is a computer system designed to do one or a few dedicated and/or specific functions often with real-time computing constraints. It is a specialized computer system that is part of a larger system or machine. Typically, an embedded system is housed on a single microprocessor board with the programs stored in ROM.

APPLICATION AREAS Aircraft electronics Trains Telecommunication Medical System Military Appliances .

POWER SUPPLY Power supply comprises of four basic parts: Transformer Bridge Rectifier Shunt Capacitor Voltage Regulator .

The two coils are physically insulated from each other in such a way that passing an a/c current through the primary coil creates changing voltage in the primary coil and a changing magnetic field in the core This in turn induces a varying a/c voltage in the secondary coil . into 12V a/c Magnetic Induction Principle Two coils: primary and secondary wound around the iron core.TRANSFORMER Step Down Transformer Steps down the 220V a/c.

This voltage is not appropriate for the components that are going to work through it. Output resulting from rectifier is a pulsating D. voltage. Converts zero average value to non zero average value.C. Transforms an alternating current into direct current by limiting or regulating the direction of flow of current. .BRIDGE RECTIFIER The a/c voltage is then fed to the bridge rectifier.

voltage is smoothened using filter capacitor of 1000 microfarad 25V. the RC charge time of the filter capacitor must be short and the RC discharge time must be long to eliminate ripple action. Store charge as the voltage rises and give up the charge as the voltage falls. This has the effect of smoothening out the waveform and provides steadier voltage output. D. voltage is obtained across the capacitor. When the filter is used.C. . The filter capacitor stores electrical charge.C.SHUNT CAPACITOR Ripple of the D.

e. The out terminal of the IC i. The third terminal is connected to ground.VOLTAGE REGULATOR Regulates the supply if the line voltage increases or decreases. pin 3 provides a regular output. The series 78xx regulators provide fixed regulated voltages from 5 to 24 volts.e. pin 1 which is filtered by capacitor. An unregulated input voltage is applied at the IC Input pin i. .


INTRODUCTION TO 8051 MICROCONTROLLER In 1981. many manufacturers put only 4K bytes on the chip . Intel Corporation introduced an 8-bit microcontroller called the 8051 128 bytes of RAM 4K bytes of on-chip ROM two timers one serial port Four I/O ports (8-bit) maximum of 64K bytes of on-chip ROM .


SYMBOL OF LED . Consists of two elements of processed material called P-type semiconductors and N-type semiconductors. Resembles most other diode types. allowing visible or IR energy to pass through. These two elements are placed in direct contact. Some LEDs emit infrared (IR) energy. but in most LEDs it is monochromatic. such a device is known as an infrared-emitting diode (IRED). The LED or IRED has a transparent package. occurring at a single wavelength. The light is not particularly bright. forming a region called the P-N junction. but there are important differences.LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED) A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits visible light when an electric current passes through it.


supply mains a direct current passes through the brushes and the commutator to the armature winding.c.C. When the motor is connected to the D. Passing through the commutator it is converted into a. Ic is the current flowing through the conductor in amperes And Lc is the length of the conductor in meters. so that the groups of conductors under successive field poles carry current in the opposite direction. The magnitude of the mechanical force experienced on the conductor is given by: F = B Ic Lc newton Where B is the field strength in teslas. the direction of which is given by the Fleming's left hand rule and hence the conductor moves in the direction of force. .DC MOTOR PRINCIPLE: If a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field. mechanical force is experienced on the conductor.

The armature is pivoted which causes it to operate one or more sets of contacts. When the coil is energized. . by passing current through it. The magnetized core attracts the iron armature. To prevent this diode is connected across the coil. wound on an iron core.RELAY The electromagnetic relay consists of a multi-turn coil. to form an electromagnet. Relays can generate a very high voltage across the coil when switched off. This can damage other components in the circuit. When the coil is de-energized the armature and contacts are released. the core becomes temporarily magnetized.


The speed of the motor shafts rotation is directly related to the frequency of the input pulses The length of rotation is directly related to the number of input pulses applied . The range of step size may vary from 0. called a step. For every input pulse. the motor shaft turns through a specified number of degrees. The shaft or spindle of a stepper motor rotates in discrete step increments when electrical command pulses are applied to it in the proper sequence.72 degree to 90 degree. The sequence of the applied pulses is directly related to the direction of motor shafts rotation.STEPPER MOTOR A stepper motor is an electromechanical device which converts electrical pulses into discrete mechanical movements. . Stepper motor is a form of ac. motor . Its working principle is one step rotation for one input pulse.


SEVEN SEGMENT The seven-segment LED display has four individual digits. each with a decimal point. By choosing which segments to illuminate. . When a suitable voltage is applied to a given segment LED. any of the nine digits can be shown. Each of the seven segments (and the decimal point) in a given digit contains an individual LED. current flows through and illuminates that segment LED.


LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD) A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display. . video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals (LCs). electronic visual display.

LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR (LDR) A Light Dependent Resistor (aka LDR. photoconductor. Light dependent resistors are a vital component in any electric circuit which is to be turned on and off automatically according to the level of ambient light . or photocell) is a device which has a resistance which varies according to the amount of light falling on its surface.

Home automation for the elderly and disabled can provide increased quality of life for persons who might otherwise require caregivers or institutional care. ventilation and air conditioning). to provide improved convenience. .HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM Home automation is the residential extension of "building automation". housework or household activity. Home automation may include centralized control of lighting. HVAC (heating. appliances. and other systems. comfort. It is automation of the home. energy efficiency and security.

all appliances will stop working indicating person has moved out of the house. the buzzer will beep when person has entered home. 2. As soon as ldr input becomes 1.The buzzer will beep for 5msec only. When we obstruct the light falling on ldr sensor.3.this will send a high input to buzzer input pin P3.7 of lcd. this will send a high on input on pins P2. the sensor will now be in high impedance state and therefore. therefore sending a 1 signal to the pin P3.light and relay will start working after 5msec and will continue until the ldr input is 0.3.WORKING Initially ldr sensor is exposed to light and the ldr is in low impedance state.5. then according to the program written in the microcontroller a note welcome home will be displayed on the screen of the lcd which indicates that the person have entered home As a 0 signal is sent to the pin P3.6. . a 0 signal is sent to the pin P3. All the home appliances such as fan.As high input is given to buzzer.3. 2.6.and all devices will be in OFF state.