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CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

‡ Interpersonal Determinants ‡ Personal Determinants ‡ Decision Making Process
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INTERPERSONAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
Cultural Influences

‡ Culture: values, beliefs,
preferences, and tastes handed down from one generation to the next

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INTERPERSONAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
Cultural Influences Core Values in the U.S. Culture

‡ While some cultural ‡

values change over time, basic core values do not Examples of American core values include: ‡ Importance of family and home life ‡ The work ethic ‡ Desire to accumulate wealth
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INTERPERSONAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Cultural Influences International Perspective on Cultural Influences Successful strategies in one country often cannot extend to other international markets because of cultural variations 9-4 .

INTERPERSONAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR ‡ Subcultures: subgroup Cultural Influences ‡ of culture with its own. distinct modes of behavior Subcultures can differ by: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Race Nationality Age Religion Geographic distribution 9-5 .

INTERPERSONAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR ‡ Norms: are the values. Cultural Influences attitudes. and behaviors that a group deems appropriate for its members Status: is the relative position of any individual member in a group Roles define behavior that members of a group expect of individuals who hold specific positions within the group 9-6 ‡ Social Influences ‡ .

income. and residence location 9-7 . family background. education.INTERPERSONAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR ‡ Cultural Influences Social Influences Social classes: groups whose rankings are determined by occupation.

INTERPERSONAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR ‡ Cultural Influences Social Influences Opinion leaders: individuals likely to purchase new products before others and then share the resulting experiences and opinions by word-ofmouth 9-8 .

INTERPERSONAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Cultural Influences Four Categories of Household Decisionmaking ‡ Autonomic ‡ Husband-dominant ‡ Wife-dominant ‡ Syncratic Social Influences Family Influences 9-9 .

INTERPERSONAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Cultural Influences ‡ ‡ ‡ Social Influences Family Influences Children and teenagers in family purchases Growing numbers are assuming responsibility for family shopping They also influence what parents buy They represent over 50 million consumers in their own right 9-10 .

PERSONAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 9-11 .

Needs and Motives ‡ Need: an imbalance between a consumer¶s ‡ actual and desired states Motives: inner states that direct a person toward the goal of satisfying a felt need © PhotoDisc 9-12 .

Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Self-Actualization Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs 9-13 .

exercise equipment. . Ignite the soul.´ Shell Oil²³Count on Shell.´ Volvo²³Protect the body. retirement investments. burglar alarm systems. fitness clubs Church¶s Fried Chicken²³Gotta love it. ´ Safety Needs Products Marketing themes Cars and car accessories. food.Marketing Strategies Based on Maslow¶s Needs Hierarchy Physiological Needs Products Marketing themes Vitamins. and Healthy!´ Post Cereals²³Commitment to Quality. . smoke and carbon-monoxide detectors. medicines Fireman¶s Fund insurance²³License to get on with it. herbal supplements.´ American General Financial Group²³Live the life you¶ve imagined.´ Campbell¶s Soups²³M¶m! M¶m! Good!´ Campbell¶s Healthy Request Soups²³M¶m! M¶m! Good! .´ Bayer²³Changing the world with great care. insurance. medicines.´ 9-14 .

cultural events. hobbies. luxury goods Products Microsoft²³Where do you want to go today? Marketing Baccarat Crystal²³Beauty has its reasons.´ Self Actualization Education.´ 9-15 .´ Esteem Needs Product Marketing themes Clothing. cars (Cont¶d) Cadillac Seville²³It¶s what¶s next. starting with you.´ Egift online retailer²³Great gifts for everyone . jewelry. sports hobbies. entertainment.´ Van Cleef & Arpels²³The pleasure of perfection. . liquors.´ Lawson Software²³Leading-edge technology without the attitude. cars.´ Jenn-Air kitchen appliances²³The sign of a great cook.Marketing Strategies Based on Maslow¶s Needs Hierarchy Social Products Marketing themes Beauty aids. .´ Blue Ridge Knives²³Follow the leader.´ Serta²³We make the world¶s best mattress. beauty spa services Saks Fifth Avenue²³Defining Style.´ themes Grand Lido Resorts²³Lost and found for the soul. clothing.´ Gauthier jewelry²³Wear art.

and smell Perceptual screens: the filtering processes through which all inputs must pass ‡ 9-16 .Perceptions ‡ Perception: the meaning Perceptual Screens that a person attributes to incoming stimuli gathered through the five senses ± sight. taste. hearing. touch.

Attitudes ‡ Marketers have two choices to lead prospective buyers to adopt a favorable attitude toward their product: ‡ Attempt to produce (modify) consumer attitudes that will motivate the purchase of a particular product ‡ Evaluate existing consumer attitudes and then make the product characteristics appeal to them 9-17 .

Learning ‡ Learning: an immediate or expected change in ‡ ‡ behavior as a result of experience Drive: strong stimulus that impels action Reinforcement: a drive that results from an appropriate consumer response 9-18 .

Learning Applying Learning Theory to Marketing Decisions ‡ Shaping: process of applying a series of rewards and reinforcements to permit more complex behavior to evolve over time © PhotoDisc 9-19 .

others think I am) ideal self (who I want to be) 9-20 .SelfSelf-Concept Theory ‡ Self-Concept: person¶s multifaceted picture ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ of himself or herself. (Who I think I am) looking-glass self. (Who. (Objective self) self-image. I think. composed of the real self.

THE CONSUMER DECISION PROCESS An Integrated Model of the Consumer Decision Process 9-21 .

THE CONSUMER DECISION PROCESS Problem Opportunity Recognition ‡ High-involvement purchase ‡ Search Alternative Evaluation decisions are those with high levels of potential social or economic consequences Low-involvement decisions are routine purchases that pose little risk to the consumer Purchase Decision Purchase Act PostPostpurchase Evaluation .

THE CONSUMER DECISION PROCESS Problem Opportunity Recognition ‡ Consumer becomes aware of a significant discrepancy between the existing situation and the desired situation Motivates the individual to achieve the desired state of affairs ‡ .

THE CONSUMER DECISION PROCESS Problem Opportunity Recognition ‡ Consumer gathers information ‡ Search ‡ ‡ related to their attainment of the desired state of affairs Identifies alternative means of problem solution May cover internal or external sources of information Brands that a consumer actually considers buying before making a purchase decision are known as the evoked set .

THE CONSUMER DECISION PROCESS Problem Opportunity Recognition ‡ Consumer evaluates the evoked set ‡ Outcome of the evaluation stage is the Search ‡ ‡ Alternative Evaluation choice of a brand or product (or possibly a decision to renew the search) Evaluative criteria: features that a consumer considers in choosing a model alternatives Evaluative criteria are important in this stage .

the purchase location is decided Search Alternative Evaluation Purchase Decision .THE CONSUMER DECISION PROCESS Problem Opportunity Recognition ‡ Consumer narrows the alternatives ‡ down to one Next.

the www is the outlet of choice for many consumers Search ‡ ‡ Alternative Evaluation Purchase Decision Purchase Act . personnel. and services Some choose the convenience of in-home shopping Increasingly. assortment.THE CONSUMER DECISION PROCESS Problem Opportunity Recognition ‡ Consumers tend to choose outlets by considering such characteristics as location. store image. physical design. price.

and attitudes is called cognitive dissonance PostPostpurchase Evaluation Search Alternative Evaluation Purchase Decision Purchase Act . beliefs.THE CONSUMER DECISION PROCESS Problem Opportunity Recognition ‡ After the purchase. consumers are ‡ either satisfied or experience post-purchase anxiety Post-purchase anxiety that results from an imbalance among an individual¶s knowledge.

or alkaline batteries 9-29 . orange juice.Classifying Consumer ProblemProblemSolving Processes ‡ Purchases made routinely Routinized Response Behavior ‡ by choosing a preferred brand or one of a limited group of acceptable brands Examples: regular brand of a soft drink.

Classifying Consumer ProblemProblemSolving Processes ‡ Situation where the Routinized Response Behavior Limited Problem Solving ‡ consumer has previously set evaluative criteria for a particular kind of purchase but then encounters a new. unknown brand or item Example: Consumer considers trying a new brand of shampoo or selects a roast for a special dinner 9-30 .

or baby furniture 9-31 . new home.Classifying Consumer ProblemProblemSolving Processes Routinized Response Behavior Limited Problem Solving ‡ Results when brands are ‡ ‡ Extended Problem Solving difficult to categorize or evaluate High-involvement purchase decisions usually require extended problem solving Example: purchase of a new car.