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Types of Communication  

On the basis of organization relationship and rules
Formal Informal  


On the basis of Flow
Vertical Crosswise/Diagonal Horizontal  


On the basis of Expression
Oral Written Gesture


Types of Communication


Formal Communication President Instructions and directives Information Managers Managers Workers Workers Workers Workers Efforts at coordination 4 .

Formal Communication ‡ the process of sharing official information with others who need to know it. ‡ according to the prescribed patterns depicted in an organization chart ‡ Flows through formal channel ‡ Also known as line of command 5 .

Types ‡ downward communication ‡ upward communication ‡ horizontal communication ‡ Diagonal communication 6 .

‡ May be both official or personal. ‡ Not planned and organized. ‡ Based on friendship or acquaintance. 7 .Informal Communication ‡ Base of informal relation between two or more individuals ‡ also known as grapevine.

Advantages ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Faster speed Reacts quickly Multi dimensional Positive group making Free expression of ideas Supplement to formal channel 8 .

Disadvantages ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Half truth. rumors No documental proof No action can be taken May lead to internal dispute No authority line is maintained 9 .

Informal channels Y K G D C B Gossip A Chain C B A E D F G H J K A Probability Cluster C A I J D F F B D B I E C H I X J 10 .

Formal vs Informal Communication ??? 11 .

Difference Formal communication ‡ Follows the formal channel ‡ Executives are informed about the sender ‡ Quick reaction may not be there ‡ Relation between the sender and receiver is far remote Informal communication ‡ Doesn t follow any formal channel ‡ The sender will be unknown ‡ Quick reaction will be expected ‡ Relation is more like friendly 12 .

when in fact they didn t hear the message. exacting process than talking would be. if they know you well. they read it. Writing a message to friends or colleagues can be as natural as talking to them. we often feel anxious and view writing as a more effortful. 13 . they may mentally hear your voice in your written words. Yet when we are asked to write something. Still.Written or Oral ??? ‡ People often say it was good to hear from you when they receive an e-mail or a letter.

message.‡ Oral and written forms of communication are similar in many ways. environment. feedback. 14 . receiver. They both rely on the basic communication process. channel. receiver. which consists of eight essential elements: source. and interference. context.

Element of Communication Definition Oral Application Written Application 1. Ram listens to Shyam. 3. 2. Message The message is the stimulus or Shyam asks Ram Shyam¶s e-mail asks meaning produced to participate in Ram to participate by the source for a conference in a conference call 15 the receiver. . Ram reads Shyam¶s email. Source A source creates and communicates a message. Shyam makes a telephone call to Ram. at 3:15. Receiver A receiver receives the message from the source. call at 3:15. Shyam writes an email to Ram.

Feedback is the message the receiver sends in response to the source. Feedback Ram says yes. mail.Element of Communication Definition A channel is the way a message travels between source and receiver. Ram replies with an e-mail saying yes. . 5. Oral Application Written Application 4. Ram is at his desk when he receives 16 Shyam¶s e-mail. Channel The channel is the The channel is etelephone. Ram is travelling by train on a business trip when he receives Shyam¶s phone call. 6. Environment The environment is the physical atmosphere where the communication occurs.

so. an e-mail with the call-in Shyam expects Ram to check his The context involves information for the call. receiver. Context Ram expects Ram expects Shyam to dial and Shyam to send connect the call. different time the zone from but he doesn¶t communication process. call. 17 8. but he Also known as has missed the noise. and does. Shyam. Ram calls in at 3:15. e-mail for the callthe psychological in information so expectations of Shyam expects to do that he can join the source and the call. call because interference is he forgot that Ram waits for a anything that phone call from he is in a blocks or distorts Shyam at 3:15.Element of Communication Definition Oral Application Written Application 7. Interference .

18 .What is Oral Communication? ‡ Oral Communication describes any type of interaction that makes use of spoken words.

Forms of Oral Communication There are 2 forms of oral communication. ‡ Face to face Communication ‡ Using mechanical devices for oral communication 19 .

Face to Face Communication ‡ Face to face communication means the exchange of information. 20 . thoughts and feelings. when the participants are in the same physical contact.

21 .Why face to face communication is still the best! ‡ Because human beings are visual and aural creatures. trust and loyalty. It is essential for creating connection.

‡ There is also an exchange of palpable physical energy that takes place when people are in the same room with each other. 22 . ‡ Our brains still rely on our instinct to assess danger. trust and honesty.‡ People can be emotionally engaged.






Nonverbal Communication I Is it possible to communicate without words? Studies show that over half of your message is carried through nonverbal elements: ‡ Your appearance ‡ Your body language ‡ The tone and ‡ the pace of your voice. .

‡ Registered our enthusiasm and sincerety ‡ Noted our tone of voice and processed all into nonverbal message. . Before someone processes our verbal messages.Nonverbal Communication II We know the importance of first impression But first impressions happen everytime we initiate the communication. ‡ She has taken in our appearance.

Nonverbal Communication III ‡ If this message reinforce the content of verbal one. ‡ If the two messages do not match. it means we send a powerful message. . they may cancel each other and that means nomessages delivered. ‡ Nonverbal communication part of this training is for learning how to create a powerfull nonverbal message that will support your verbal content.

Projecting a Powerful Image I How would you like to sound? How would you like to look? How did you look &sound ? The name of the difference is the image gap Projecting an image that is consistent with the person you want to be significantly improves your ability to develop trust &rapport .

Businessworld expect neat. Politicians. singers. . energetic look which reflects that she is ready to work.Projecting a Powerful Image II Image can be critical to your success. clean. top managers It is irrational but people mostly judge the book by the cover. They expect a totaly different image from an executive and a rock musician. It is definitely a key element of communication. anchormans.

Projecting a Powerful Image III Total image consists of: ‡ The first impressions you project ‡ The depth of your knowledge ‡ The breadth of your knowledge ‡ Your enthusiasm. .

First Impression First impression includes: ‡ Dress & grooming ‡ Voice ‡ Handshake ‡ Eye contact ‡ Body posture .

First Impression II Positive first impression make communications much easier and more comfortable. . Many people give up rather than trying to reverse the other people s negative impression. Negative first impressions can cut off a relationship before it gets started.

messy dressing style. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . dirty shoes ‡ Seldom eyecontact ‡ Poor posture.First Impression III Accent. Monotone and weak voice. with inappropriate coloures. bad hygiene creates a barrier. poor vocabulary Cold. limp handshake Lower quality.

industry.Depth of Knowledge Depth of knowledge: in the area of expertise ‡ This refers how well you know your subject? ‡ How well do you know your company? ‡ Does the depth of your knowledge project credibility and command respect from your employees or do they say I could do her job as well as she can ‡ As a part of your image learn your job. firm s policies. personnel . company.

‡ The latest development in world events? ‡ Popular books and movies? ‡ Arts? Hobbies? Different interest areas? ‡ Touristic experiences? .Breadth of Knowledge I Breadth of Knowledge: This area deals with your ability to converse with others in fields of outside area of expertise.

Breadth of Knowledge II By increasing the breadth of your knowledge. Research has shown that the more people have in common. . you will be able to develop rapport with others. the better they like each other.

doing home responsibilities with listening radio. ‡ reading daily newspapers and min. watching TV plus reading weekly magazines. listening to them .Breadth of Knowledge III For increasing breadth of your knowledge it is recommended: ‡ to spend the nonproductive time as driving. 4 different books yearly and ‡ interacting with others.

Enthusiasm is a projected behaviour to others and make the others enthusiastic. longer and more accurately than those who are not enthusiastic.Enthusiasm Most people like to work with others who are enthusiastic about their work. Enthusiastic people seem to work harder. Reverse is valid also. .

Projecting a Powerful Image The response you receive from the world around you is a measure of your success in interpersonal relations. gesture. you are on the stage. Every word. From the beginning to the end of every transaction with another person. expression an dimpression is being seen and evaluated Therefore be careful and respectful generally.. .

Language of Gestures Body language and nonverbal communication are transmitted through the eyes. face. Therefore consider the gesture in the light of everyhing else that is going on around you. legs and posture (sitting and walking) Each individual. . it is difficult and isolated dangerous to interpret in and of itself. arms. isolated gesture is like a word in sentence. hands.

Honest person has a tendency to look you straight in the eye when speaking. . At least listeners accept it like that.Eyes Windows of the soul. Shifty eyes. beady eyes and look of steel demonstrate awareness. excellent are indicators of feelings.

left lookers are found to be more emotional. subjective and suggestible. Try to reduce tension and build trust rather than increase tension. Right lookers are more influenced by logic and precision.Eyes II People avoid eye contact with other person when an uncomfortable question asked. . The raising of one eyebrow shows disbelief and two shows surprise. People are classified as right lookers and leftlookers.

. The term Poker Face describes them. emotions & feelings By analysing facial expressions. Some people try to hide their true emotions.The Face The face is one of the most reliable indicators of a person s attitudes. interpersonal attitudes can be discerned and feedback obtained.

anger Smiles: happiness Sneers: dislike.The Face Common facial gestures are: Frowns: unhappiness. anger Pouting lips: sadness. . disgust Clenched jaws: tension.

. Superiority and authority are usually indicated when you are standing and joining your hands behind your back. It may be difficult to relate to this person because of his tension and disagreement.The Hands Tightly clenched hands usually indicate that the person is experiencing undue pressure.

Leaning back with both hands supporting the head usually indicates a feeling of confidence or superiority.The Hands II Rubing gently behind or beside the ear with the index finger or rubbing the eye usually means the other person is uncertain about what you are saying. .

.Hands III Cupping one or both hands over the mouth. especially when talking. Fingers bent across the chin or below the mouth most often shows critical evaluation. may well indicate that the person is trying to hide something Putting your hand to your cheek or stroking your chin generally portrays thinking. interest or consideration.

The Arms and Legs Crossed arms tend to signal defensiveness. They seemingly act as a protective guard against an anticipated attack or a fixed position which the other person would rather not move. . arms open and extended toward you generally indicate openness and acceptance. Conversely.

The Arms and Legs II
Crossed legs tend to seem disagreement. People who tightly cross their legs seem to be saying that they disagree with what you are saying or doing. If the people have tightly crossed legs and tightly crossed arms, their inner attitude is usually one of extreme negativity toward what is going on around them. It may be difficult to get agreement.

Posture: Sitting and Walking
Sitting with your legs crossed and elevated foot moving in a slight circular motion indicates boredom or impatience. Interest and involvement are usually projected by sitting on the edge of the chair and leaning slightly forward. Generally, people who walk fast and swing their arms freely tend to know what they want and to go after that.

Posture: Sitting and Walking II
People who walk with their shoulders hunched and hands in their pockets tend to be secretive and critical. They don t seem to like much of what is going on around them. Dejected people usually scuffle along with their hands in pockets, heads down, and shoulders hunched over. People who are preoccupied or thinking, usually walk with their heads down, hands clasped behind their backs and pace very slowly.

. so analysis of a person s body language is based on a series of signals to ensure that the body language clearly and accurately understood. Each gesture is dependent to others. These combinations are clusters.Interpreting Gesture Clusters Certain combinations of gestures are especially reliable indicators of a person s true feelings.

unified message. But if there are nervous signals in body language that means the person is trying to escape from an unpleasent situation. this means a incongruity. When they do not. A laugh generally signal of relaxation.Interpreting Gesture Clusters II All the individual gestures fit together to project a common. . For example: A nervous lough.

. ‡ unbuttoned coal or collar. ‡ moving closer.Common Gesture Clusters Openness: Several gestures indicate openness and sincerety ‡ Open hands. ‡ removing coat or jacket. ‡ leaning slightly forward in the chair. ‡ uncrossing arms and legs.

. When they are not often put their hands into their pockets.Common Gesture Clusters Openness: When people are proud of what they have done. or hide back When people show signals of openness that means they are generally beginning very comfortable in your presence which is good. they usually show their hands quite openly.

Common Gesture Clusters Defensiveness: People who are defensive usually have ‡ a rigid body. ‡ arms or legs tightly crossed. ‡ eyes glancing sideways or darting occasionaly. ‡ minimal eye contact ‡ lips pursed. fists clenched and downcast head .

‡ hand to cheek. Sometimes in a friendly way sometimes in an unfriendly way. ‡ leaning forward and ‡ chin stroking . Typical evaluation gestures include ‡ tilted head.Common Gesture Clusters Evaluation: Evaluation gestures say that the other person is being thoughtful or is considering what you are saying.

.Common Gesture Clusters Evaluation: Sometimes evaluation gestures take on a critical aspect. ‡ The body is more drawn back ‡ The hand is to the face but the chin is in the palm of the hand with one finger going up the cheek and the other fingers positioned below the mouth. ‡ This is generally an unfavorable gesture.

A final negative evaluation gesture is dropping his eyeglasses to the lower bridge of noise and peering over them. . removing eyeglasses. This gesture usually causes a negative emotional overreaction in other people.Common Gesture Clusters Evaluation: To gain time for evaluating the situation people use cigarette or pipe smoking habits.

Rejection. and Doubt: These negative emotions are communicated typically by: ‡ Sideways glances ‡ Minimal or no eye contact ‡ Shifting the body away from the speaker ‡ Touching or rubbing the nose.Suspicion. . Secrecy.

Secrecy. Touching nose may indicate doubt or concealment . A sideway glances means suspicion and doubt. Shifting your body from someone means you wish to end the conversation. Rejection. meeting etc.Suspicion. has private feelings in opposition to what you are saying or hiding something. and Doubt II When a person do not want to look at you it could mean he is being secretive.

Common Gesture Clusters Readiness Readiness is related to the goal-oriented high achiever with a concern for getting things done. It communicates dedication to a goal and is usually communicated by sitting forward at the edge of a chair. This may negatively give the appearence of being overly anxious also. .

Common Gesture Clusters Nervousness
‡ Clearing one s throat, ‡ Chain smoking. ‡ Covering the mouth with hand, ‡ Tapping fingers ‡ Whistling, ‡ Jingling pocket change ‡ Fidgeting ‡ Twitching lips or face

Common Gesture Clusters Boredom or Impatience
These unproductive feelings are usually conveyed by the ‡ Drumming of fingers ‡ Cupping the head in the palm of the hand, ‡ Foot swinging ‡ Brushing or picking a lint ‡ Looking at your watch or the exit.

Common Gesture Clusters Enthusiasm
This is an emotion hat you love to see in other people and they in you. It is conveyed by ‡ A small upper or inward smile ‡ Hands open and arms extended outward ‡ Eyes wide an alert ‡ A lively and bouncy walk ‡ A lively and well-modulated voice.


‡ Actions speak louder than words. . indications. suggestions .NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION : INTRODUCTION ( 1 of 4 ) ‡ Non -Verbal Communication is the message or response not expressed or sent in words -hints . ‡ What you are speaks so loudly that I cannot hear what you say -Ralph Waldo Emerson ‡ There is a distinction between the meanings we give in words and the meanings we give off in NV signals.

. ‡ In fact.NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION : INTRODUCTION ( 2 of 4 ) ‡ Non -Verbal signals are unconscious parts of our behavior which is a deeply rooted part in our entire makeup.e. i. it is the most basic part of our personality. ‡ Behavior has no opposite. there is no such thing as non-behavior.

Activity or inactivity.. all have message value: they influence others and these others. . words or silence. if it is accepted that all behavior in an interactional situation has message value.NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION : INTRODUCTION ( 3 of 4 ) ‡ Christopher Turk puts it very simply : ‡ one cannot not behave. one cannot not communicate. it follows that no matter how one may try. cannot notrespond to these communications. in turn. i. is communication. Now.e.

. instinctual form of human communication.NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION : INTRODUCTION ( 4 of 4 ) ‡ NVC is the unspoken communication that goes on in every Face-to-Face encounter with another human being. without them ever saying it. ‡ NVC stands for the innermost. ‡ It is recognized as the route to discover what the other side wants. like a secret way into their soul.

‡ Over 65 percent ofthe social meaning of the messages we send to others are communicated nonverbally. listeners receive the other 93% through non -verbal means.IMPORTANCE OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION ‡ Communication researcher Mehrabian found that only 7% of a message s effect are carried by words . . ‡ Birdwhistell suggested that spoken words account for not more than 30-35% of all our social interactions.

Body Language or Kinesics B.TYPES OF NON-VERBAL MESSAGES ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ A. Color F. or Haptics . Touch. Clothing or Artifactual Communication C. Voice or Paralanguage D. Time. Space and Distance. and G. or Chronemics. or Proxemic factors E.

postures.KINESICS: POSTURE GESTURE FA CIAL EXPRESSIONS GAZE / EYE CONTACT .A. and facial expressions by which a person communicates nonverballywith others -(Soukhanov 1992:211). Body Language ‡ The bodily gestures.

A. Body Language Body language and kinesicsare based on the behavioral patterns of nonverbal communication. ‡ . but kinesics is still so new as a science that its authorities can be counted on the fingers of one hand " ‡ -(Fast 1970:9).

looking up at the ceiling.A. doodling on a pad. People showing open hands.OPEN / CLOSED People with arms folded and legs crossed and bodies turned away are signalling that they are rejecting messages. When they are leaning back. 2.FORWARD/ BACK When people are leaning forward and pointing towards you they are actively accepting or rejecting the message. fully facing you and both feet planted on the ground are accepting them. Basic Types of Body Language postures 1. . cleaning their glasses they are either passively absorbing or ignoring it.

Body Language 1.Arms 5.Hands 6.A.Facial expression(s) 2.Fingers .Eyes 3.Lips 4.

Since the face cannot be easily hidden. pupil size.A1. . and the smile provide additional cues to informed observers.1 The Face The face is an important source of information. it is an important source of nonverbal information and communicates a variety of emotions. In addition. eye contact.

Facial Expression(s) .1.A1.

A1.2. Facial Expression(s) .

.3.A1. never smile. Facial Expression(s) What is the impression you wish to convey? Do you smile at others? Always smiling. sometimes.

A2. Eyes .

Lips .A3.

Arms .A4.

A5. Hands .

Fingers .A6.

Interpreting Body Language .

1. Responsive ENGAGED leaning forward Open Body Open Arms Open Hands .1.

1.2. Responsive EAGER (sprint position) Open Legs Feet under Chair On Toes Leaning Forward .

1.3. Responsive READY TO AGREE closes papers Pen Down Hands Flat on Table .

2. Reflective LISTENING with head tilted Lots of Eye Contact Nodding High Blink Rate .1.

2.2. Reflective EVALUATING : sucking glasses / pencil Stroking Chin Looking Up and Right Legs crossed in 4 pos Ankle on Knee .

2. Reflective ATTENTIVE (standing) Arms behind Back Smile Open Feet .3.

1.3. Fugitive BORED staring into space Slumped Posture Doodling Foot Tapping .

2.3. Fugitive LET ME GO feet towards door Looking Around Buttoning Jacket .

3.3. Fugitive REJECTION sitting/moving back Arms Folded Legs Crossed in 11 pos Thigh on Knee Head Down Frown .

1. Combative LET ME SPEAK finger tapping Foot Tapping Staring .4.

Combative AGGRESSIVE leaning forwards Finger Pointing Fists Clenched .2.4.

3. Combative DEFIANT (standing) Hands on Hips Frown .4.

makeup. Artifactual Communication and Color Artifactual communication. jewellery. People are apt to make inferences about us based on the way we dress. is an integral part of the nonverbal package. and beards.B. It includes the use of personal adornments such as clothing. hairstyles. .

personal distance-18 inches to 4 feet. D. Space and Distance. social distance-4 to 12 feet. and public distance-12 feet to the limit of sight. including the treatment of space and territory influence interaction and help define the communication experience. Edward Hall says there are four different distances that we keep between ourselves and other people:intimate distance-0 to 18 inches. or Proxemicfactors .Proxemic cues.

Territoriality describes the need to demonstrate a possessive or ownership relationship to space.D. Territorialityis an important concept in communication: typically. semifixed-feature. . and fixed-feature based on the perceived permanence of the physical space. Space and Distance. Markers are used to reserve space and set boundaries that help identify the space as belonging to someone. human beings stake out space or territory. or Proxemic factors Researchersdivide environmental spaces into three categories:informal.

and Technology The use of nonverbal cues is affected by variables such as gender. The ways men and women use nonverbal cues reflects societal practices. . Diversity. and technology. people modify their useof nonverbal cues depending on the culturethey belong to or identify with. To a large degree. Non-verbal communication is also affectedby whether communication is occurring on-or offline.Gender. culture.

You can improve your effectiveness as a non-verbal communicator by observing and analyzing both the physical environment of interactions and the body language. and touching behaviorof the participants. Inculcate positive Body Sport. vocal cues. appearance.Tips to improve Non-Verbal Communication Positive NV behavior improves your non-verbal communication effectiveness. . eye contact. gestures.