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DESIGN OF CANTILEVER

RETAINING WALLS
FUNCTION
To hold back the masses of earth or
loose soil where conditions make it
impossible to let those masses
assume their natural slopes.
TYPES
GRAVITY WALLS
RETAINING WALLS
TYPES
RETAINING WALLS
CANTILEVER
TYPES
RETAINING WALLS
COUNTERFORT
TYPES
RETAINING WALLS
COUNTERFORT
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TYPES
RETAINING WALLS
BUTTRESS
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PARTS
CANTILEVER RETAINING WALLS
STEM
or
Wall Slab
TOE
HEEL
KEY
BACKFILL
FRONT
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EARTH PRESSURES
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Liquids are frictionless and
cohesion less. So in liquid
retaining structures the
pressures are directly related to
the density of the liquid and
head.
y
¸y
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EARTH PRESSURES
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However, this is not true for
soils:
Sand, for example, when dry,
acts as a frictional material
without cohesion and has a well-
defined angle of repose .
EARTH PRESSURES
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If the same sand is now
moistened, it develops a
certain amount of cohesive
strength and its angle of
repose increases, somewhat
erratically.
EARTH PRESSURES
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Further wetting will break down
the internal friction forces until
the sand slumps and will hardly
stand at any angle at all.
EARTH PRESSURES
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Clay on the other hand when first
exposed in situ stands vertically
to considerable depths when
reasonably dry, but after time will
subside, depending on its
moisture content.
EARTH PRESSURES
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And clay, in dry seasons, gives up its
moisture to atmosphere with
subsequent shrinkage, so that at
depths less than about 1 or 2 m it may
be unreliable as a stop to react the
forward movement of a retaining wall.
EARTH PRESSURES
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Thus the lateral pressures from
soils can vary very widely
depending on the moisture
content.
EARTH PRESSURES
‡ PRESSURE AT REST
‡ ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE
‡ PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE
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PRESSURE AT REST
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When the soil behind the wall is
prevented from lateral movement
(towards or away from soil) of
wall, the pressure is known as
earth pressure at rest.
PRESSURE AT REST
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This is the case when wall has
a considerable rigidity.
Basement walls generally fall in
this category.
PRESSURE AT REST
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RIGID
ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE
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If a retaining wall is allowed to
move away from the soil
accompanied by a lateral soil
expansion, the earth pressure
decreases with the increasing
expansion.
ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE
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A shear failure of the soil is resulted
with any further expansion and a
sliding wedge tends to move forward
and downward. The earth pressure
associated with this state of failure is
the minimum pressure and is known
as active earth pressure.
EARTH PRESSURES
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H
H/3
o
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o o o
o o o
o
2 2
2 2
cos cos cos
cos cos cos
cos
+

=
a
C
o
o
sin 1
sin 1
+

=
ah
C
H
H/3
o = 0
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PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE
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If a retaining wall is allowed to move
towards the soil accompanied by a
lateral soil compression, the earth
pressure increases with the
increasing compression in the soil.
PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE
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o o o
o o o
o
2 2
2 2
cos cos cos
cos cos cos
cos

+
=
P
C
o
o
sin 1
sin 1

+
=
ph
C
o = 0
= 1/C
ah
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STABILITY
ࣤ OVERTURNING
ࣤ SLIDING
ࣤ BEARING
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OVERTURNING
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Highway Loading (Surcharge)
OVERTURNING
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Overturning Forces
No Surcharge Here
Full Surcharge Here
Active Pressure
Soil+Surcharge
OVERTURNING
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Restoring Forces
No Passive
Pressure
Weight of Soil
Weight of Wall
Weight of Soil
(with care)
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OVERTURNING
Restoring Moment
Overturning Moment
FOS vs OT =
A FOS = 2 is considered sufficient
SLIDING
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Sliding Forces
No Surcharge Here
Full Surcharge Here
Active Pressure
Soil+Surcharge
H1
SLIDING
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Resisting Forces
H2 + E L V
E=Coeff of Friction
No Surcharge Here
H2
V
s1
V
s2
V
c1
V
c2
V
c3
Resisting Forces
SLIDING without KEY
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Passive Earth Pressure Force+E L V
Active Earth Pressure Force
FOS vs Sliding =
A FOS = 1.5 is considered sufficient
SLIDING with KEY
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Sliding Forces
No Surcharge Here
Active Pressure
Soil+Surcharge
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Resisting Forces
No Surcharge Here
H
V
s1
V
s2
V
c1
V
c2
V
c3
SLIDING with KEY
Find Vertical forces
acting in front and
back of key
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No Surcharge Here
V
s2
V
c1
V
c2
V
s1
V
c3
RESULTANT
Active Pressure
Soil+Surcharge
SLIDING with KEY
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Determine Pressure
Distribution Under Base
B
B/2
e
A=B
S=B
2
/6
2
6
B
Ve
B
V
+
2
6
B
Ve
B
V

V
x
SLIDING with KEY
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Determine Force in Front of KEY
B
x1
P1
P2
y1
y2
y3
y3=y2+(y1-y2) (B-x1)/B
P1=(y1+y3) x1/2
P2=V-P1
SLIDING with KEY
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When Pressure Distribution Under
Base is Partially Negative
B
B/2
e
2
6
B
Ve
B
V
+
2
6
B
Ve
B
V

V
SLIDING with KEY
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B
x
e
2
6
B
Ve
B
V
+
2
6
B
Ve
B
V

V
3x
2V
3x
Determine P1 and
P2 once again
P1
P2
SLIDING with KEY
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Total Sliding Force = H1
Total Resisting Force = P1 tan o + E P2 + H2
Force in Front of Key
Internal Friction of Soil
Passive Earth
Pressure Force
Force on and
Back of Key
Friction b/w Soil, Concrete
Active Earth Pressure Force
SLIDING with KEY
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BEARING
1. No surcharge on heel
2. Surcharge on heel
There are two possible critical conditions
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BEARING
No Surcharge on Heel
V
s2
V
c1
V
c2
V
s1
V
c3
RESULTANT
Active Pressure
Soil+Surcharge
This case has been dealt already
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BEARING
Surcharge on Heel
V
s2
V
c1
V
c2
V
s1
V
c3
RESULTANT
Active Pressure
Soil+Surcharge
Vs
DETERMINE THE PRESSURE
DISTRIBUTION UNDER BASE SLAB
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Determine Pressure
Distribution Under Base
B
B/2
e
A=B
S=B
2
/6
2
6
B
Ve
B
V
+
2
6
B
Ve
B
V

V
x
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Compare Pressure with
Bearing Capacity
B
2
6
B
Ve
B
V
+
2
6
B
Ve
B
V

2
6
B
Ve
B
V
+
FOS vs Bearing =
Allowable Bearing
Max Bearing Pressure
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ALTERNATELY
B
2
6
B
Ve
B
V
+
2
6
B
Ve
B
V

FOS vs Bearing =
Allowable Bearing
Max Bearing Pressure
2V/3x
2V/3x
3x
END OF PART I
BENDING OF WALL
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DESIGN OF STEM
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CRITICAL SECTIONS
Active Pressure
Soil+Surcharge
Critical Section
Moment
Critical Section Shear
d
DESIGN OF STEM
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Design Moment
=1.6 (H1 y1 + H2 y2)
H1=Ca s h
Surcharge = s N/m
2
H2=0.5 Ca ¸
s
h
2
y1
y2
h
DESIGN OF STEM
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Design Shear=1.7(H '1+H '2)
H'1=Ca s (h-d)
Surcharge = s N/m
2
H'2=0.5 Ca ¸
s
(h-d)
2
d
h
¼
¼
½
»
¬
¬
­
«
¼
½
»
¬
­
«

+

2
2 1 7 . 1
h
d h
H
h
d h
H
DESIGN OF TOE SLAB
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CRITICAL SECTIONS
Critical Section
Moment
d
Critical Section (Shear)
DESIGN OF TOE SLAB
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Design Loads
1.6Soil Pressure
0.9 Self Wt
0.9 Soil in Front
(may be neglected)
TOE : DESIGN MOMENT
1.6(0.5 T y3) T/3
+1.6(0.5 T y1) 2T/3
-0.9 w
c
T
2
/2
-0.9 w
s
T
2
/2
T
y1
y3
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TOE : DESIGN SHEAR
1.6(0.5 T
s
) y3 T
s
/T
+1.6(0.5 T y1-0.5 d [y1/T] d)
-0.9 w
c
T
s
-0.9 w
s
T
s
Ts=T-d
y1
y3
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DESIGN OF HEEL SLAB
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CRITICAL SECTIONS
Critical Section
Moment & Shear
TENSION FACES
DESIGN OF HEEL SLAB
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DESIGN LOADS
1.6s + 1.2 ¸
s
+1.2 ¸
c
Soil Pressure Neglected
BENDING OF WALL
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MAIN REINFORCEMENT
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Minimum 75 mm Clear Cover
ACI CODE
SECONDARY STEELS
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ACI Minimum SLAB
ACI 14.3.3
ACI 14.3.2
END OF PART II
DRAINAGE
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Sand + Stone Filter
Weepers
Or
Weep Holes
DRAINAGE
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Drainage Pipes
f
100-200 mm @ 2.5 to 4 m
DRAINAGE (Alternate)
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Perforated Pipe
Suited for short walls
END OF PART III
End of Part III

FUNCTION
To hold back the masses of earth or loose soil where conditions make it impossible to let those masses assume their natural slopes.

RETAINING WALLS

TYPES GRAVITY WALLS

RETAINING WALLS TYPES CANTILEVER .

RETAINING WALLS TYPES COUNTERFORT .

SIIT-Thammasat University RETAINING WALLS TYPES COUNTERFORT School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University RETAINING WALLS TYPES BUTTRESS School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University CANTILEVER RETAINING WALLS PARTS STEM or Wall Slab BACKFILL FRONT TOE KEY HEEL School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University EARTH PRESSURES Liquids are frictionless and cohesion less. School of Civil Engineering-AIT . So in liquid retaining structures the pressures are directly related to the density of the liquid and head.

SIIT-Thammasat University y Ky School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

this is not true for soils: Sand. School of Civil Engineering-AIT . for example. when dry. acts as a frictional material without cohesion and has a welldefined angle of repose .SIIT-Thammasat University EARTH PRESSURES However.

it develops a certain amount of cohesive strength and its angle of repose increases. School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University EARTH PRESSURES If the same sand is now moistened. somewhat erratically.

School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University EARTH PRESSURES Further wetting will break down the internal friction forces until the sand slumps and will hardly stand at any angle at all.

depending on its moisture content. School of Civil Engineering-AIT . but after time will subside.SIIT-Thammasat University EARTH PRESSURES Clay on the other hand when first exposed in situ stands vertically to considerable depths when reasonably dry.

SIIT-Thammasat University EARTH PRESSURES And clay. School of Civil Engineering-AIT . gives up its moisture subsequent to atmosphere so with that at shrinkage. depths less than about 1 or 2 m it may be unreliable as a stop to react the forward movement of a retaining wall. in dry seasons.

SIIT-Thammasat University EARTH PRESSURES Thus the lateral pressures from soils can vary very widely depending on the moisture content. School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University EARTH PRESSURES ‡ PRESSURE AT REST ‡ ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE ‡ PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

the pressure is known as earth pressure at rest.SIIT-Thammasat University PRESSURE AT REST When the soil behind the wall is prevented from lateral movement (towards or away from soil) of wall. School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

Basement walls generally fall in this category. School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University PRESSURE AT REST This is the case when wall has a considerable rigidity.

SIIT-Thammasat University PRESSURE AT REST RIGID School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE If a retaining wall is allowed to move away from the soil accompanied by a lateral soil expansion. the earth pressure decreases with the increasing expansion.

School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE A shear failure of the soil is resulted with any further expansion and a sliding wedge tends to move forward and downward. The earth pressure associated with this state of failure is the minimum pressure and is known as active earth pressure.

SIIT-Thammasat University EARTH PRESSURES School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University H H H/3 cos H  cos H  cos J cos H  cos H  cos J School of Civil Engineering-AIT 2 2 C a ! cos H 2 2 .

SIIT-Thammasat University H! H H/3 Cah 1  sin J ! 1  sin J School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

School of Civil Engineering-AIT . the earth pressure increases with the increasing compression in the soil.SIIT-Thammasat University PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE If a retaining wall is allowed to move towards the soil accompanied by a lateral soil compression.

SIIT-Thammasat University PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University C P ! cos H cos H  cos H  cos J cos H  cos H  cos J 2 2 2 2 H=0 C ph 1  sin J ! 1  sin J = 1/Cah School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University STABILITY OVERTURNING SLIDING BEARING School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University OVERTURNING Highway Loading (Surcharge) School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University OVERTURNING Overturning Forces No Surcharge Here Full Surcharge Here Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University OVERTURNING Restoring Forces No Passive Pressure Weight of Soil (with care) Weight of Wall Weight of Soil School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University OVERTURNING FOS vs OT = Restoring Moment Overturning Moment A FOS = 2 is considered sufficient School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University Sliding Forces No Surcharge Here SLIDING Full Surcharge Here H1 Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University Resisting Forces Resisting Forces H2 + E7V E=Coeff of Friction Vs2 No Surcharge Here SLIDING Vc1 Vs1 H2 Vc2 Vc3 School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University SLIDING without KEY FOS vs Sliding = Passive Earth Pressure Force+E7 V Active Earth Pressure Force A FOS = 1.5 is considered sufficient School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University Sliding Forces SLIDING with KEY No Surcharge Here Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University Resisting Forces SLIDING with KEY No Surcharge Here Vs2 Vc1 Vs1 H Vc2 Vc3 School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University Find Vertical forces acting in front and back of key SLIDING with KEY No Surcharge Here RESULTANT Vs2 Vc1 Vs1 Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge Vc2 Vc3 School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University SLIDING with KEY Determine Pressure Distribution Under Base x V e A=B S=B2/6 V 6Ve  2 B B B B/2 V 6Ve  2 B B School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University SLIDING with KEY Determine Force in Front of KEY y1 P1 P2 y2 y3 y3=y2+(y1-y2) (B-x1)/B B x1 P1=(y1+y3) x1/2 P2=V-P1 School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University SLIDING with KEY When Pressure Distribution Under Base is Partially Negative V e V 6Ve  2 B B B B/2 V 6Ve  2 B B School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University V e SLIDING with KEY V 6Ve  2 B B B x 2V 3x P1 3x P2 V 6Ve  2 B B Determine P1 and P2 once again School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

Concrete School of Civil Engineering-AIT Passive Earth Pressure Force Force on and Back of Key .SIIT-Thammasat University SLIDING with KEY Active Earth Pressure Force Total Sliding Force = H1 Total Resisting Force = P1 tan JEP2 + H2 Force in Front of Key Internal Friction of Soil Friction b/w Soil.

No surcharge on heel 2. Surcharge on heel School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University BEARING There are two possible critical conditions 1.

SIIT-Thammasat University This case has been dealt already BEARING No Surcharge on Heel RESULTANT Vs2 Vc1 Vs1 Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge Vc2 Vc3 School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University DETERMINE THE PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION UNDER BASE SLAB BEARING Surcharge on Heel Vs RESULTANT Vs2 Vc1 Vs1 Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge Vc2 Vc3 School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University Determine Pressure Distribution Under Base A=B S=B2/6 V x e V 6Ve  2 B B B B/2 V 6Ve  2 B B School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University Compare Pressure with Bearing Capacity V 6Ve  2 B B B V 6Ve  2 B B Allowable Bearing FOS vs Bearing = Max Bearing Pressure V 6Ve  2 B B School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University ALTERNATELY V 6Ve  2 B B V 6Ve  2 B B B 2V/3x 3x Allowable Bearing FOS vs Bearing = Max Bearing Pressure 2V/3x School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

END OF PART I .

SIIT-Thammasat University BENDING OF WALL School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University CRITICAL SECTIONS DESIGN OF STEM Critical Section Shear Critical Section Moment Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge d School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

5 Ca Ks h2 School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University DESIGN OF STEM Design Moment =1.6 (H1 y1 + H2 y2) Surcharge = s N/m2 h H1=Ca s h y1 y2 H2=0.

5 Ca Ks (h-d)2 d School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University Design Shear=1.7 ¬ H 1  H 2¬ ¼ ¼ h ­ h ½ ¼ ¬ ½ ­ DESIGN OF STEM Surcharge = s N/m2 h H'1=Ca s (h-d) H'2=0.7(H '1+H '2) 2 « hd «h  d » » 1.

SIIT-Thammasat University DESIGN OF TOE SLAB CRITICAL SECTIONS Critical Section (Shear) Critical Section Moment d School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

9 Soil in Front (may be neglected) School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University DESIGN OF TOE SLAB Design Loads 1.6Soil Pressure 0.9 Self Wt 0.

SIIT-Thammasat University

TOE :

DESIGN MOMENT

1.6(0.5 T y3) T/3 +1.6(0.5 T y1) 2T/3 -0.9 wc T2/2 -0.9 ws T2/2 y3 y1 T
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TOE :

DESIGN SHEAR

1.6(0.5 Ts) y3 Ts/T +1.6(0.5 T y1-0.5 d [y1/T] d) -0.9 wc Ts -0.9 ws Ts y3 y1 Ts=T-d
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CRITICAL SECTIONS

DESIGN OF HEEL SLAB

Critical Section Moment & Shear

TENSION FACES

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2 Ks +1.2 Kc Soil Pressure Neglected School of Civil Engineering-AIT .6s + 1.SIIT-Thammasat University DESIGN OF HEEL SLAB DESIGN LOADS 1.

SIIT-Thammasat University BENDING OF WALL School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University MAIN REINFORCEMENT Minimum 75 mm Clear Cover School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

3.3 ACI Minimum SLAB School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University ACI CODE SECONDARY STEELS ACI 14.3.2 ACI 14.

END OF PART II .

SIIT-Thammasat University DRAINAGE Weepers Or Weep Holes Sand + Stone Filter School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

5 to 4 m School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University DRAINAGE Drainage Pipes f 100-200 mm @ 2.

SIIT-Thammasat University DRAINAGE (Alternate) Perforated Pipe Suited for short walls School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

End of Part III END OF PART III .