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RETAINING WALLS

FUNCTION

To hold back the masses of earth or

loose soil where conditions make it

impossible to let those masses

assume their natural slopes.

TYPES

GRAVITY WALLS

RETAINING WALLS

TYPES

RETAINING WALLS

CANTILEVER

TYPES

RETAINING WALLS

COUNTERFORT

TYPES

RETAINING WALLS

COUNTERFORT

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

TYPES

RETAINING WALLS

BUTTRESS

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

PARTS

CANTILEVER RETAINING WALLS

STEM

or

Wall Slab

TOE

HEEL

KEY

BACKFILL

FRONT

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

EARTH PRESSURES

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Liquids are frictionless and

cohesion less. So in liquid

retaining structures the

pressures are directly related to

the density of the liquid and

head.

y

¸y

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

EARTH PRESSURES

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

However, this is not true for

soils:

Sand, for example, when dry,

acts as a frictional material

without cohesion and has a well-

defined angle of repose .

EARTH PRESSURES

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

If the same sand is now

moistened, it develops a

certain amount of cohesive

strength and its angle of

repose increases, somewhat

erratically.

EARTH PRESSURES

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Further wetting will break down

the internal friction forces until

the sand slumps and will hardly

stand at any angle at all.

EARTH PRESSURES

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Clay on the other hand when first

exposed in situ stands vertically

to considerable depths when

reasonably dry, but after time will

subside, depending on its

moisture content.

EARTH PRESSURES

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

And clay, in dry seasons, gives up its

moisture to atmosphere with

subsequent shrinkage, so that at

depths less than about 1 or 2 m it may

be unreliable as a stop to react the

forward movement of a retaining wall.

EARTH PRESSURES

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Thus the lateral pressures from

soils can vary very widely

depending on the moisture

content.

EARTH PRESSURES

PRESSURE AT REST

ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE

PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

PRESSURE AT REST

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

When the soil behind the wall is

prevented from lateral movement

(towards or away from soil) of

wall, the pressure is known as

earth pressure at rest.

PRESSURE AT REST

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

This is the case when wall has

a considerable rigidity.

Basement walls generally fall in

this category.

PRESSURE AT REST

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

RIGID

ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

If a retaining wall is allowed to

move away from the soil

accompanied by a lateral soil

expansion, the earth pressure

decreases with the increasing

expansion.

ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

A shear failure of the soil is resulted

with any further expansion and a

sliding wedge tends to move forward

and downward. The earth pressure

associated with this state of failure is

the minimum pressure and is known

as active earth pressure.

EARTH PRESSURES

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

H

H/3

o

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

o o o

o o o

o

2 2

2 2

cos cos cos

cos cos cos

cos

+

=

a

C

o

o

sin 1

sin 1

+

=

ah

C

H

H/3

o = 0

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

If a retaining wall is allowed to move

towards the soil accompanied by a

lateral soil compression, the earth

pressure increases with the

increasing compression in the soil.

PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

o o o

o o o

o

2 2

2 2

cos cos cos

cos cos cos

cos

+

=

P

C

o

o

sin 1

sin 1

+

=

ph

C

o = 0

= 1/C

ah

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

STABILITY

ࣤ OVERTURNING

ࣤ SLIDING

ࣤ BEARING

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

OVERTURNING

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Highway Loading (Surcharge)

OVERTURNING

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Overturning Forces

No Surcharge Here

Full Surcharge Here

Active Pressure

Soil+Surcharge

OVERTURNING

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Restoring Forces

No Passive

Pressure

Weight of Soil

Weight of Wall

Weight of Soil

(with care)

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

OVERTURNING

Restoring Moment

Overturning Moment

FOS vs OT =

A FOS = 2 is considered sufficient

SLIDING

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Sliding Forces

No Surcharge Here

Full Surcharge Here

Active Pressure

Soil+Surcharge

H1

SLIDING

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Resisting Forces

H2 + E L V

E=Coeff of Friction

No Surcharge Here

H2

V

s1

V

s2

V

c1

V

c2

V

c3

Resisting Forces

SLIDING without KEY

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Passive Earth Pressure Force+E L V

Active Earth Pressure Force

FOS vs Sliding =

A FOS = 1.5 is considered sufficient

SLIDING with KEY

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Sliding Forces

No Surcharge Here

Active Pressure

Soil+Surcharge

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Resisting Forces

No Surcharge Here

H

V

s1

V

s2

V

c1

V

c2

V

c3

SLIDING with KEY

Find Vertical forces

acting in front and

back of key

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

No Surcharge Here

V

s2

V

c1

V

c2

V

s1

V

c3

RESULTANT

Active Pressure

Soil+Surcharge

SLIDING with KEY

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Determine Pressure

Distribution Under Base

B

B/2

e

A=B

S=B

2

/6

2

6

B

Ve

B

V

+

2

6

B

Ve

B

V

V

x

SLIDING with KEY

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Determine Force in Front of KEY

B

x1

P1

P2

y1

y2

y3

y3=y2+(y1-y2) (B-x1)/B

P1=(y1+y3) x1/2

P2=V-P1

SLIDING with KEY

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

When Pressure Distribution Under

Base is Partially Negative

B

B/2

e

2

6

B

Ve

B

V

+

2

6

B

Ve

B

V

V

SLIDING with KEY

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

B

x

e

2

6

B

Ve

B

V

+

2

6

B

Ve

B

V

V

3x

2V

3x

Determine P1 and

P2 once again

P1

P2

SLIDING with KEY

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Total Sliding Force = H1

Total Resisting Force = P1 tan o + E P2 + H2

Force in Front of Key

Internal Friction of Soil

Passive Earth

Pressure Force

Force on and

Back of Key

Friction b/w Soil, Concrete

Active Earth Pressure Force

SLIDING with KEY

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

BEARING

1. No surcharge on heel

2. Surcharge on heel

There are two possible critical conditions

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

BEARING

No Surcharge on Heel

V

s2

V

c1

V

c2

V

s1

V

c3

RESULTANT

Active Pressure

Soil+Surcharge

This case has been dealt already

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

BEARING

Surcharge on Heel

V

s2

V

c1

V

c2

V

s1

V

c3

RESULTANT

Active Pressure

Soil+Surcharge

Vs

DETERMINE THE PRESSURE

DISTRIBUTION UNDER BASE SLAB

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Determine Pressure

Distribution Under Base

B

B/2

e

A=B

S=B

2

/6

2

6

B

Ve

B

V

+

2

6

B

Ve

B

V

V

x

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Compare Pressure with

Bearing Capacity

B

2

6

B

Ve

B

V

+

2

6

B

Ve

B

V

2

6

B

Ve

B

V

+

FOS vs Bearing =

Allowable Bearing

Max Bearing Pressure

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

ALTERNATELY

B

2

6

B

Ve

B

V

+

2

6

B

Ve

B

V

FOS vs Bearing =

Allowable Bearing

Max Bearing Pressure

2V/3x

2V/3x

3x

END OF PART I

BENDING OF WALL

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

DESIGN OF STEM

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

CRITICAL SECTIONS

Active Pressure

Soil+Surcharge

Critical Section

Moment

Critical Section Shear

d

DESIGN OF STEM

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Design Moment

=1.6 (H1 y1 + H2 y2)

H1=Ca s h

Surcharge = s N/m

2

H2=0.5 Ca ¸

s

h

2

y1

y2

h

DESIGN OF STEM

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Design Shear=1.7(H '1+H '2)

H'1=Ca s (h-d)

Surcharge = s N/m

2

H'2=0.5 Ca ¸

s

(h-d)

2

d

h

¼

¼

½

»

¬

¬

«

¼

½

»

¬

«

+

2

2 1 7 . 1

h

d h

H

h

d h

H

DESIGN OF TOE SLAB

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

CRITICAL SECTIONS

Critical Section

Moment

d

Critical Section (Shear)

DESIGN OF TOE SLAB

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Design Loads

1.6Soil Pressure

0.9 Self Wt

0.9 Soil in Front

(may be neglected)

TOE : DESIGN MOMENT

1.6(0.5 T y3) T/3

+1.6(0.5 T y1) 2T/3

-0.9 w

c

T

2

/2

-0.9 w

s

T

2

/2

T

y1

y3

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

TOE : DESIGN SHEAR

1.6(0.5 T

s

) y3 T

s

/T

+1.6(0.5 T y1-0.5 d [y1/T] d)

-0.9 w

c

T

s

-0.9 w

s

T

s

Ts=T-d

y1

y3

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

DESIGN OF HEEL SLAB

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

CRITICAL SECTIONS

Critical Section

Moment & Shear

TENSION FACES

DESIGN OF HEEL SLAB

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

DESIGN LOADS

1.6s + 1.2 ¸

s

+1.2 ¸

c

Soil Pressure Neglected

BENDING OF WALL

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

MAIN REINFORCEMENT

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Minimum 75 mm Clear Cover

ACI CODE

SECONDARY STEELS

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

ACI Minimum SLAB

ACI 14.3.3

ACI 14.3.2

END OF PART II

DRAINAGE

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Sand + Stone Filter

Weepers

Or

Weep Holes

DRAINAGE

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Drainage Pipes

f

100-200 mm @ 2.5 to 4 m

DRAINAGE (Alternate)

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

Perforated Pipe

Suited for short walls

END OF PART III

End of Part III

FUNCTION

To hold back the masses of earth or loose soil where conditions make it impossible to let those masses assume their natural slopes.

RETAINING WALLS

TYPES GRAVITY WALLS

RETAINING WALLS TYPES CANTILEVER .

RETAINING WALLS TYPES COUNTERFORT .

SIIT-Thammasat University RETAINING WALLS TYPES COUNTERFORT School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University RETAINING WALLS TYPES BUTTRESS School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University CANTILEVER RETAINING WALLS PARTS STEM or Wall Slab BACKFILL FRONT TOE KEY HEEL School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University EARTH PRESSURES Liquids are frictionless and cohesion less. School of Civil Engineering-AIT . So in liquid retaining structures the pressures are directly related to the density of the liquid and head.

SIIT-Thammasat University y Ky School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

this is not true for soils: Sand. School of Civil Engineering-AIT . for example. when dry. acts as a frictional material without cohesion and has a welldefined angle of repose .SIIT-Thammasat University EARTH PRESSURES However.

it develops a certain amount of cohesive strength and its angle of repose increases. School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University EARTH PRESSURES If the same sand is now moistened. somewhat erratically.

School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University EARTH PRESSURES Further wetting will break down the internal friction forces until the sand slumps and will hardly stand at any angle at all.

depending on its moisture content. School of Civil Engineering-AIT . but after time will subside.SIIT-Thammasat University EARTH PRESSURES Clay on the other hand when first exposed in situ stands vertically to considerable depths when reasonably dry.

SIIT-Thammasat University EARTH PRESSURES And clay. School of Civil Engineering-AIT . gives up its moisture subsequent to atmosphere so with that at shrinkage. depths less than about 1 or 2 m it may be unreliable as a stop to react the forward movement of a retaining wall. in dry seasons.

SIIT-Thammasat University EARTH PRESSURES Thus the lateral pressures from soils can vary very widely depending on the moisture content. School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University EARTH PRESSURES PRESSURE AT REST ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

the pressure is known as earth pressure at rest.SIIT-Thammasat University PRESSURE AT REST When the soil behind the wall is prevented from lateral movement (towards or away from soil) of wall. School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

Basement walls generally fall in this category. School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University PRESSURE AT REST This is the case when wall has a considerable rigidity.

SIIT-Thammasat University PRESSURE AT REST RIGID School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE If a retaining wall is allowed to move away from the soil accompanied by a lateral soil expansion. the earth pressure decreases with the increasing expansion.

School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE A shear failure of the soil is resulted with any further expansion and a sliding wedge tends to move forward and downward. The earth pressure associated with this state of failure is the minimum pressure and is known as active earth pressure.

SIIT-Thammasat University EARTH PRESSURES School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University H H H/3 cos H cos H cos J cos H cos H cos J School of Civil Engineering-AIT 2 2 C a ! cos H 2 2 .

SIIT-Thammasat University H! H H/3 Cah 1 sin J ! 1 sin J School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

School of Civil Engineering-AIT . the earth pressure increases with the increasing compression in the soil.SIIT-Thammasat University PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE If a retaining wall is allowed to move towards the soil accompanied by a lateral soil compression.

SIIT-Thammasat University PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University C P ! cos H cos H cos H cos J cos H cos H cos J 2 2 2 2 H=0 C ph 1 sin J ! 1 sin J = 1/Cah School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University STABILITY OVERTURNING SLIDING BEARING School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University OVERTURNING Highway Loading (Surcharge) School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University OVERTURNING Overturning Forces No Surcharge Here Full Surcharge Here Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University OVERTURNING Restoring Forces No Passive Pressure Weight of Soil (with care) Weight of Wall Weight of Soil School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University OVERTURNING FOS vs OT = Restoring Moment Overturning Moment A FOS = 2 is considered sufficient School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University Sliding Forces No Surcharge Here SLIDING Full Surcharge Here H1 Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University Resisting Forces Resisting Forces H2 + E7V E=Coeff of Friction Vs2 No Surcharge Here SLIDING Vc1 Vs1 H2 Vc2 Vc3 School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University SLIDING without KEY FOS vs Sliding = Passive Earth Pressure Force+E7 V Active Earth Pressure Force A FOS = 1.5 is considered sufficient School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University Sliding Forces SLIDING with KEY No Surcharge Here Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University Resisting Forces SLIDING with KEY No Surcharge Here Vs2 Vc1 Vs1 H Vc2 Vc3 School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University Find Vertical forces acting in front and back of key SLIDING with KEY No Surcharge Here RESULTANT Vs2 Vc1 Vs1 Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge Vc2 Vc3 School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University SLIDING with KEY Determine Pressure Distribution Under Base x V e A=B S=B2/6 V 6Ve 2 B B B B/2 V 6Ve 2 B B School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University SLIDING with KEY Determine Force in Front of KEY y1 P1 P2 y2 y3 y3=y2+(y1-y2) (B-x1)/B B x1 P1=(y1+y3) x1/2 P2=V-P1 School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University SLIDING with KEY When Pressure Distribution Under Base is Partially Negative V e V 6Ve 2 B B B B/2 V 6Ve 2 B B School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University V e SLIDING with KEY V 6Ve 2 B B B x 2V 3x P1 3x P2 V 6Ve 2 B B Determine P1 and P2 once again School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

Concrete School of Civil Engineering-AIT Passive Earth Pressure Force Force on and Back of Key .SIIT-Thammasat University SLIDING with KEY Active Earth Pressure Force Total Sliding Force = H1 Total Resisting Force = P1 tan JEP2 + H2 Force in Front of Key Internal Friction of Soil Friction b/w Soil.

No surcharge on heel 2. Surcharge on heel School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University BEARING There are two possible critical conditions 1.

SIIT-Thammasat University This case has been dealt already BEARING No Surcharge on Heel RESULTANT Vs2 Vc1 Vs1 Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge Vc2 Vc3 School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University DETERMINE THE PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION UNDER BASE SLAB BEARING Surcharge on Heel Vs RESULTANT Vs2 Vc1 Vs1 Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge Vc2 Vc3 School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University Determine Pressure Distribution Under Base A=B S=B2/6 V x e V 6Ve 2 B B B B/2 V 6Ve 2 B B School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University Compare Pressure with Bearing Capacity V 6Ve 2 B B B V 6Ve 2 B B Allowable Bearing FOS vs Bearing = Max Bearing Pressure V 6Ve 2 B B School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University ALTERNATELY V 6Ve 2 B B V 6Ve 2 B B B 2V/3x 3x Allowable Bearing FOS vs Bearing = Max Bearing Pressure 2V/3x School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

END OF PART I .

SIIT-Thammasat University BENDING OF WALL School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University CRITICAL SECTIONS DESIGN OF STEM Critical Section Shear Critical Section Moment Active Pressure Soil+Surcharge d School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

5 Ca Ks h2 School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University DESIGN OF STEM Design Moment =1.6 (H1 y1 + H2 y2) Surcharge = s N/m2 h H1=Ca s h y1 y2 H2=0.

5 Ca Ks (h-d)2 d School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University Design Shear=1.7 ¬ H 1 H 2¬ ¼ ¼ h h ½ ¼ ¬ ½ DESIGN OF STEM Surcharge = s N/m2 h H'1=Ca s (h-d) H'2=0.7(H '1+H '2) 2 « hd «h d » » 1.

SIIT-Thammasat University DESIGN OF TOE SLAB CRITICAL SECTIONS Critical Section (Shear) Critical Section Moment d School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

9 Soil in Front (may be neglected) School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University DESIGN OF TOE SLAB Design Loads 1.6Soil Pressure 0.9 Self Wt 0.

SIIT-Thammasat University

TOE :

DESIGN MOMENT

1.6(0.5 T y3) T/3 +1.6(0.5 T y1) 2T/3 -0.9 wc T2/2 -0.9 ws T2/2 y3 y1 T

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

TOE :

DESIGN SHEAR

1.6(0.5 Ts) y3 Ts/T +1.6(0.5 T y1-0.5 d [y1/T] d) -0.9 wc Ts -0.9 ws Ts y3 y1 Ts=T-d

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

SIIT-Thammasat University

CRITICAL SECTIONS

DESIGN OF HEEL SLAB

Critical Section Moment & Shear

TENSION FACES

School of Civil Engineering-AIT

2 Ks +1.2 Kc Soil Pressure Neglected School of Civil Engineering-AIT .6s + 1.SIIT-Thammasat University DESIGN OF HEEL SLAB DESIGN LOADS 1.

SIIT-Thammasat University BENDING OF WALL School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

SIIT-Thammasat University MAIN REINFORCEMENT Minimum 75 mm Clear Cover School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

3.3 ACI Minimum SLAB School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University ACI CODE SECONDARY STEELS ACI 14.3.2 ACI 14.

END OF PART II .

SIIT-Thammasat University DRAINAGE Weepers Or Weep Holes Sand + Stone Filter School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

5 to 4 m School of Civil Engineering-AIT .SIIT-Thammasat University DRAINAGE Drainage Pipes f 100-200 mm @ 2.

SIIT-Thammasat University DRAINAGE (Alternate) Perforated Pipe Suited for short walls School of Civil Engineering-AIT .

End of Part III END OF PART III .

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