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The atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation).


The hydrosphere is the liquid water component of the Earth. It includes the oceans, seas, lakes, ponds, rivers and streams. The hydrosphere covers about 70% of the surface of the Earth and is the home for many plants and animals.

€ Next to the air. bathing. Water is available in various forms such as rivers. The earliest civilizations organized on the banks of major river systems and required water for drinking. . the other important requirement for human life to exists is water. lake. streams etc. cooking etc. But with the advancement of civilization the utility of water enormously increased and now such a stage has come that without well organized public water supply scheme. it is impossible to run the present civic life and the develop the towns.


Industrial demand iii. it is not possible to accurately determine the actual demand. As a matter of fact the first duty of the engineer is to determine the water demand of the town and then to find suitable water sources from where the demand can be met. Fire demand vi. Loses and wastes . Certain empirical formulae and thumb rules are employed in determining the water demand. which is very near to the actual demand. Domestic water demand ii. Institution and commercial demand iv. Following are the various types of water demands of a city or town: i.VARIOUS TYPES OF WATER DEMANDS While designing the water supply scheme for a town or city. But as there are so many factors involved in demand of water. it is necessary to determine the total quantity of a water required for various purposes by the city. Demand for public use v.

automatic household appliances. climatic conditions and customs of the people.5 litres c) Bathing -----. under normal conditions. But in developed countries this figure may be 350 litres/day/capita because of use of air coolers. cooking.10 litres f) House washing -----. the domestic consumption of water in India is about 135 litres/day/capita. washing etc is called domestic water demand and mainly depends upon the habits.5 litres b) Cooking -----. air conditioners.10 litres -------------------------135 litres/day/capita € . € The details of the domestic consumption are a) Drinking -----.55 litres d) Clothes washing -----. social status. As per IS: 1172-1963. bathing.The quantity of water required in the houses for drinking.20 litres e) Utensils washing -----. maintenance of lawns.

The water required by factories. Cotton mills. . paper mills. Cloth mills. comes under industrial use. which are existing in the city. Sugar refineries etc.€ The water required in the industries mainly depends on the type of industries. Breweries. The quantity of water demand for industrial purpose is around 20 to 25% of the total demand of the city.

health centers. commercial buildings and commercial centers including office buildings. railway and bus stations etc comes under this category. schools. . warehouses. Institution. water supply requirements for the public buildings other than residences as follows.€ Universities. cinema houses. As per IS: 1172-1963. temple. hotels shopping centers. stores.

€ Quantity of water required for public utility purposes such as for washing and sprinkling on roads. cleaning of sewers. . gardens. provision of 5% of the total consumption is made designing the water works for a city. watering of public parks. To meet the water demand for public use. public fountains etc comes under public demand.

€ Fire may take place due to faulty electric wires by short circuiting. Q=3182 ¥p Where ¶Q· is quantity of water required in litres/min ¶P· is population of town or city in thousands € € € . explosions. fire catching materials. For Indian conditions kuichings formula gives satisfactory results. bad intension of criminal people or any other unforeseen mishappenings. In the cities fire hydrants are provided on the water mains at 100 to 150 m apart for fire demand. As during the fire breakdown large quantity of water is required for throwing it over the fire to extinguish it. The quantity of water required for fire fighting is generally calculated by using different empirical formulae. therefore provision is made in the water work to supply sufficient quantity of water or keep as reserve in the water mains for this purpose.

faulty valves and fittings.All the water. Losses due to defective pipe joints. allowance of 15% of total quantity of water is made to compensate for losses. Losses due to unauthorised and illegal connections. € 3. € 2. cracked and broken pipes. consumers keep open their taps of public taps even when they are not using the water and allow the continuous wastage of water. Losses due to. pipes does not reach the consumers. which goes in the distribution. thefts and wastage of water. While estimating the total quantity of water of a town. . The following are the reasons € 1.

56% found on earth is in useful form for general livelihood. About 97. which are also not useful. Barely the remaining 0. It covers 75% of the earth surface.€ Water is the most abundant compound in nature.3% of water is contained in the great oceans that are saline and 2. .14% is held in icecaps glaciers in the poles.

In so doing.€ The water cycle. and gas. The water moves from one reservoir to another. describes the continuous movement of water on. and subsurface flow. individual water molecules can come and go. vapor. condensation. in and out of the atmosphere. Water can change states among liquid. precipitation. above and below the surface of the Earth. or from the ocean to the atmosphere. solid. such as from river to ocean. infiltration. Although the balance of water on Earth remains fairly constant over time. the water goes through different phases: liquid. by the physical processes of evaporation. also known as the hydrologic cycle or H2O cycle. and solid at various places in the water cycle. runoff. .


ponds. sea. hails. . rivers. iii. iv. reservoirs and wet surfaces in the form of vapour due to sun·s heat is known as evaporation. INFILTRATION: A portion of precipitation. € ii. rivers. dew. The water of precipitation further goes off in the following ways. RUN-OFF: After precipitation a portion of its water flows over the ground in the form of rivers and streams and some water flows towards lakes and ponds and collected there. EVAPO-TRANSPIRATION: The roots of the trees sucks water from the ground and some portion. trees and plants etc again returned to the earth surface by the condensation in the form of rain. EVAPORATION: some portion of the precipitation is also evaporated from the lakes. wet surfaces. The major part of the precipitation occurs in the form of rain and other forms quantities are very small. sleet etc is known as precipitation. percolates in the ground and it is stored in the form of sub-soil or ground water.The evaporated water from the surfaces of streams. i.

slightly over two thirds of this is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps. recreational and environmenta l activities. . Uses of water include agricultural. with only a small fraction present above ground or in the air. Virtually all of these human uses require fresh water.€ € Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful. The remaining unfrozen freshwater is found mainly as groundwater. Ninety-seven percent of the water on the Earth is salt water. household. Only three percent is fresh water. industrial.

Sub surface sources The surface sources further divided into i. Streams ii. Ponds iv. Surfaces sources and 2.All the sources of water can be broadly divided into 1. Lakes v. Rivers iii. Impounding reservoirs etc € .

These are further divided into (i) Infiltration galleries (ii) Infiltration wells € (iii) Springs etc INFILTRATION WELLS INFILTRATION GALLERY SPRING .


€ In some cases. water for livestock. watering the garden and washing cars. water for irrigation or to refill aquifers in a process called groundwater recharge. these uses alone halve the amount of water used by a typical home. water source. washing clothes. and are potentially successful in most habitable locations.Rainwater harvesting is the accumulating and storing. or economical. rainwater may be the only available. € Some rooftop materials may produce rainwater that is harmful to human health. € . it can be useful in flushing toilets. € It has been used to provide drinking water. € Rainwater harvesting systems can be simple to construct from inexpensive local materials. of rainwater.


Surface water is inadequate to meet our demand and we have to depend on ground water. € Reduction in infiltration and deterioration in water quality. infiltration of rain water into the sub-soil has decreased drastically and recharging of ground water has diminished. € Reduction in open soil surface area. € Over the years due to increase in population. € Due to rapid urbanization. € Increase in run-off. irrigation and industrialisation. € . the demand of water has gone up to a large extent.


€ The decision whether to store or recharge water depends on the rainfall pattern and the potential to do so. . in a particular region.

are examples of places where groundwater recharge is usually practiced. since the period between two spells of rain is short. .€ € For example. In places like Kerala and Bangalore where rain falls throughout the year barring a few dry periods. it would be ideal to opt for storage. Wherever substrata is impermeable recharging will not be feasible. Delhi and Rajasthan where the total annual rainfall occurs during 3 or 4 months. Hence. one can depend on a small sized tank for storing rainwater.

In many places these efforts have withstood the effects of recurring drought.RURAL CASE STUDY I. Rural water harvesting Communities in the face of adversity have revived or created new water harvesting systems. They have made checkdams and other structures to harvest every drop of drain. € . Some of them have even harvested rooftop runoffs. II. Tank management The irrigation tanks (earthen bounded reservoirs constructed across slopes by taking advantage of local depressions and mounds) of South India are symbols of an ancient and rich tradition of harnessing local rainfall and stream flow for agriculture.

74.380 sq.000 litres.15. WATER SUPPLY SOURCE The daily water requirement of approximately six lakh litres is extracted from six borewells.    .44. RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEM Rainwater from various catchments. surface runoff from open areas and runoff from the Jahanpanah Reserve Forest are harvested. The remaining requirement is met through private water tankers. such as rooftop.€ URBAN CASE STUDY Jamia Hamdard University Total rooftop and surface area: 3. Average annual rainfall in Delhi : 611 mm Total volume of rainwater harvested: 67444 m³ or 6. m.

which further filters the rainwater before diverting it into the recharge well. The filtering chamber has pebbles.settlement and filtering chambers. The rainwater first enters the settlement chamber where the silt gets collected and then overflows into the filtering chamber. A wall divides the chamber into two compartments .5m x 3m in size with a 30m deep recharge borewell measuring 100mm in diameter. The recharge well measures 1. Recharging is done in the same way at the girl·s hostel .5m x 1. ROOFTOP RAINWATER HARVESTING a) Rooftop rainwater harvesting at the library building Rainwater from the library's rooftop is taken to a desilting chamber measuring 2m x 2m x 3m through a closed drain.1.


This runoff water is channelised into a desilting chamber and then into a recharge well which measures 2m x 2m x 3m with the help of a 1m high diversion wall. The runoff collected near Gate 5 is diverted into a recharge well.2. The surface runoff from the Jahanpanah reserve forest collects in a pond from where it flows through a stormwater drain adjacent to the Scholars' House. . Similarly. b) Surface runoff harvesting from Jahanpanah Reserve Forest. SURFACE RUNOFF HARVESTING a) Surface runoff harvesting near library building Surface runoff from the paved and unpaved areas surrounding the library is collected in two trenches located in the eastern part of the campus (near Gates 5 and 6). the runoff from the northern side of the building is drained into an abandoned open dugwell near Gate 6.